Boy's Manual of Seamanship and Gunnery

Fourth Instruction Standing Rigging


Is composed of pendants, shrouds, stays, and backstays ; each mast is supported forward by stays, aft by backstays, and sideways by shrouds ; the pendants are for applying extra purchases for additional support, staying the mast, or setting up the shrouds ; the foremast is supported forward by the bowsprit, therefore the latter has an additional number of shrouds, bobstays, &c., to meet the strain thus brought on it.

Iron masts are rigged similar to wooden ; iron yards occasionally have bands with eyes for lifts, braces, clew-garnets, &c.

Iron bowsprits are seldom or never-used in the Service, those ships that are supplied with iron masts, such as Rams, have wooden bowsprits for running in, which are fitted as follows :


set up with slip and screw



set up with slip and screw



set up with slip and screw



set up with slip and screw

Blocks iron 2 No.



Tackles 2 No

To Rig a Lower Mast

The masts are supposed to be placed in their proper positions by means of wedges driven in at the partners. A measuring batten is placed against the mast to indicate the stand, also to guard against bellying the mast in setting up the stays and shrouds.

Gantlines are always placed on the mastheads before the masts are stepped.

Q. How do you get the lower crosstrees in place ?

A. Supposing the foremost crosstree to be on the starboard side of the deck, the starboard gantline is bent to it amidships, on its upper side, and stopped to the port-arm three parts out.

When the arm is well over the trestle-tree, cut the stop and sway across. The after one is crossed in a similar way.

Q. How do you get a top over ?

A. There is no rule for getting a top over either before or after the lower rigging, but it is much better to do it before, as it gives the men placing the eyes of the rigging a sure footing, more room to work, and less chance in letting things fall on deck.

Sending a Whole Top aloft - Main

Stand the top abaft the mast on its after-edge, lower side facing forward, overhaul the gantlines down abaft all, the hauling parts being between the crosstrees, bend the gantlines on their own sides by passing them under the top, up through the after futtock plate-hole, down through lubber's-hole, up through the foremost futtock plate-hole, and hitch the ends to their own standing parts, thus having the heaviest part uppermost and forward ; stop the gantlines to the fore part of the top, through holes made for that purpose.

Bend the mizen-gantline to the after part through the stanchion-holes, guy aft and sway away, when the stops which confine the gantlines to the foremost rim of the top are up to the gantline-blocks, the foremost edge of the top will be pointed over the masthead ; by keeping a strain on the mizen-gantline it will keep the top from canting aft when the tops are cut. When stops are cut, pull up on the gantlines, and the top will fall over in place. A foretop is got over in a similar way, the main gantlines being used instead of the mizen. A mizen-top is sent up before the mast, so as to have the assistance of the main-gantlines to guy it clear, the after rim being sent up uppermost, the gantlines are passed under the top up through the foremost futtock-hole, down through lubber's-hole, up through the after futtock-hole, and the ends secured as in sending a main or fore top aloft, the gantlines being stopped to the after rim, so as to have the after and uppermost part of the top heaviest. In sending tops down, they are slung the contrary way, so as to have the heaviest part under : therefore if you reeve the gantlines through the foremost futtock-holes in sending a top up before all, you must reeve them through the after-holes in sending it down before all.

Getting Half-Tops over.

Suppose the starboard-half to be on the starboard side of the deck, and the port-half on the port side.

To send the starboard-half over the masthead, place both gantlines the starboard side of the masthead, hauling part between the crosstrees, and bending parts abaft it ; the half tops are placed on their own sides, foremost ends forward, bottom of the top next the deck.

Hitch the ends of the gantlines round the middle of lubber's-hole trap, then stop them down to the top rim, at the futtock-hole abreast the hitch ; bend the mizen gantlines to the after part of the top through one of the stanchion holes. Sway away, taking care to guy aft with the mizen gantlines clear of the after crosstree. When the half-top is above the crosstrees, it is easily placed in its proper position.

Q. What are bolster-cloths ?

A. Six parts of canvas, the length and breadth of the bolster dipped in Stockholm tar and nailed on the bolster for the eyes of the pendants and rigging to rest on.

Q. How are shrouds numbered?

A. By knots in a rope-yarn made fast to the crown of the eye, the first pair the starboard side has one knot ; the first pair the port side has two knots, and so on, thus, all the odd numbers will be the starboard shrouds, and all the even numbers the port shrouds. If the dead-eyes are turned in, the starboard shrouds would easily be known from the port, and vice versa by the seizings being aft, and the ends being inside and aft on both sides.

Q. How do you send the lower rigging over the masthead ?

A. The gantlines are shifted to the after part of the trestle-trees. A large toggle is seized on the end of each gantline to which a rounding line is bent. The starboard lower pendant is first sent up, a good temporary seizing is put on about three feet down the long or after leg, and instead of bending the gantline, the toggle is inserted under the seizing, and the upper part of the eye is stopped to the gantline.

When the eye of the pendant is triced up to the gantline-block, the stop is cut, and the pendant is placed over the masthead, the seizing is cast off, and the gantline is rounded down by the rounding line, the port pendant is then sent up, then the first or foremost pair of shrouds the starboard side, then the first or foremost pair the port side, and so on, until all the rigging is over the masthead ; in sending the shrouds up, the temporary seizing under which the toggle of the gantline is inserted is placed about one-third down the shroud, and the gantline is stopped to the crown of the eye in a similar way to the lower pendants.

In large ships where the mastheads are very long, it is necessary to have a short gantline to assist the eye of the rigging over ; which is lashed as high as possible up the lower masthead and worked from the top, the hauling part of the gantline being dipped through the eyes of the rigging as soon as it is over the masthead.

When the lower pendants are in place, the runners should be triced up and lashed to the long or after legs, and the up and down tackles to the short or foremost legs, so as to get a good up and down pull to settle the pendants down in place, and make a foundation for the lower rigging : each pair of shrouds should be set up when placed over the masthead ; in ships with nine shrouds of a side the single or after shroud is usually put on first ; by so doing it gives more spread for the other shrouds, and the seizings lie clear of each other. There is also more certainty of placing the mast in the position you wish, if the after-swifters are put on the first thing after the pendants ; and the mast placed by them and the runners. Before sending the lower pendants or shrouds aloft, open the eyes, which is done by lashing one side of the eyes to an eye-bolt, or any convenient place, and clapping a jigger on the other side, and haul the eyes sufficiently open to go over the masthead ; by attending to this, it saves much time when the rigging goes aloft, as the men at the masthead have neither the means nor space to do it. After having got an up and down pull of the runners, pass a lashing across abaft the mast, from the after leg of one pendant, to the after leg of the other, carry the runners forward, and steady them hand taut.

Q. How do you send lower stays up?

A. If for a foremast or mainmast, which have always two stays, send them up together by placing the upper one, which is always the starboard stay, upon top of the lower one, bend your gantlines to the fork of the stays, having first placed them fair with each other, and seize the two forks of the stays together, also put a good seizing on each side of the collars, about half way up (this applies to topmast stays also : for large ships, two seizings are put on each side of the collars), then put two seizings to the gantlines on each half-collar ; when high enough, cut the seizings on the collar, lash the stays abaft the mast ; they sometimes go over the foremast crosstree, so as to give more room for the lower yards to brace up. A mizenstay is sent up in a similar way.

Q. For what reason are the lower and topmast stays put over the mastheads after the shrouds ?

A. The lower the shrouds are placed, the sharper the yards will brace up. If the stays were placed over the masthead first, the eyes of the rigging would chafe the lashing of the eyes of the stays through, and the rigging would not lay snug.

Q. How are the lower stays turned in ?

A. Either cutter-stay fashion, or on end. When turned in cutter-stay fashion, hearts are used instead of dead-eyes ; when on end, thimbles ; sometimes the mainstays are passed round the cross-piece of the fore bitts, and secured to their own parts. Hearts are turned in and secured in a similar way that dead-eyes are in shrouds - the starboard stay the same as a starboard shroud, and the port stay the same as a port shroud.

To mark a Fore or Mainstay, for turning in.

Measure with a line from the after-part of the masthead to the heart in the collar on the bowsprit for a forestay, and to the heart at the knight-heads or fore bitts whichever place the mainstays are going to be set up to for the mainstays. Four or five feet less than the measure will be the length of the stay from the eyes to the lower part of the heart, then allow once the round of the stay and half the round of the heart for going half-round the heart and the nip.


In ships of the " Warrior " class, the mainstays are set up to hearts, secured by bolts through chocks on the upper deck, and clenched underneath on the main deck, to one of the beams about 30 ft. or 40 ft. abaft the foremast.

Note: A temporary method of securing a Shroud that has been shot away, with a pair of dead eyes that are always kept fitted The lanyard is fitted with a Matthew Walker knot, and an eye in each end to hook the jigger to, the dead eyes, fitted with two tails each, are secured round the two parts of the shroud and the lanyard housed taut with the jigger and secured.

Q. What size is a lanyard of lower stays in proportion to the stay ?

A. Half an inch less than half the size of the stay.

Q. How many turns are there rove through a heart for securing lower stays ?

A. Four lower turns, and three riding turns ; should there be any end left after these turns are rove, it is expended in riding turns, if there is sufficient room left in the heart ; the four lower and three riding turns generally fill the heart up.

Q. How are lanyards of lower stays rove ?

A. Generally on. the bight, and set up on both ends ; sometimes they are only set up on one end, in which case the standing part of the lanyard is secured with a running eye round the underneath part of the lower heart.

When the hearts for the forestays are turned in on the bowsprit, with what is termed a long collar, the standing part of the lanyard of the stay is spliced in the lower heart. It is then rove in a similar way that a lanyard for lower rigging is, the hauling part of the lanyard on the standing part of the stay, each turn being placed in the notch or score in the heart. In large hearts there are four scores, and in small ones three, every turn is hauled well taut and is racked. After the riding turns are passed, the end is seized to its own part ; three good spunyarn seizings are passed round the lanyard, at equal distances, to keep all parts in place.

Q. What purchases are used for setting up lower stays, and how are they applied ?

A. When setting up with lanyards rove on the end, the same purchase is used as for setting up lower rigging, viz., up and down and luff ; a boatswain's toggle is also used. Both stays should be set up at the same time, the luff being applied to a stay in a similar way that it is to a shroud, the single block well up the stay, hooked to a salvagee-strop, and the double block to the strop of the boatswain's toggle - the up and down to the fall of the luff.

The mast having been placed in the required position by the runners and tackles, the stays are set up until they have the strain of the mast.

When the lanyard is rove on the bight, top-Burton's, on luffs, are sufficient purchase. Great care must be taken to keep the eyes and lashing clear of each other at the masthead ; and the fork of the stays exactly middled. Men are stationed each side of the lubber's-hole with a strand, to keep the stays close to the crosstrees while setting up. If the seizings are well secured that are put on the forks of the stays before they are sent aloft, there is little fear of the stays getting out of place at the masthead when setting up ; seizings thus put on, have been known to last an entire commission, and not taken off until stripping the mast again.

Q. How do you send a lower cap up?

A. It is sometimes sent up before the lower rigging is put over the masthead, if after the lower mast is rigged, before the rigging is set up, so as to allow ample room for it to go through the lubber's-hole ; when one gantline only is used for sending the lower cap up, it is doubled by being rove through another block, the standing part being made fast to the masthead ; or both gantlines are shifted to the side of the mast you intend sending it up; there is sufficient room for it to lay in the fore part of the top, without in any way interfering with the rigging of the lower mast.


(A Topmast is always used for this purpose.)

The cap is swayed out of the top, and hung above the eyes of the lower rigging with the top-Burton tackles fair for the topmast to enter, taking care the after part of the topmast is the same side as the top block is lashed ; hook the two up and down tackles to a strop round the heel of the topmast, to assist the hawser in swaying it up, put a small spar in the fid-hole, with a rope fast to it, so as to slew the mast as required. When the topmast is about 3 ft. through the fid-hole, slew it one square forward, then lash the cap to it with two pieces of rope, clove-hitched round the topmast-head, and through the eye-bolts in the cap, one forward and one aft each side, for the cap to go up square. When ready, bring the hawser to the capstan, heave round, and walk the up and downs up by hand at the same time. When the cap is above the lower masthead, slew the mast till the cap is fair for going on, then lower the mast, and the cap will go into its place, beat it well down with commanders, then make the end of the hawser fast to the foremost eye-bolt in the cap, keeping the weight of the mast in the tackles, unlash the top-block, and hook it to the after eye-bolt, in the cap on the opposite side to which the hawser is secured, take the lashing off the topmast-head and lower cap, and the up and down tackles off the heel, and the racking off the two parts of the hawser, put a gantline on the after-part of the topmast-head, ready for sending the topmast crosstrees up ; sway the topmast for this purpose, one-fourth up.

NOTE.- It is customary to fid the spare topmast first.

Q. How do you set up lower rigging ?

A. With an up and down and luff. The double block of the up and down is lashed to the short or foremost leg of the lower pendants, the single block is overhauled down ready to hook to the fall of the luff. The single block of the luff is hooked to a salvagee-strop, which is put on the shroud that is to be set up, about 10 ft. above the netting, a strip of canvas having previously been placed round the shroud to take the chafe of the salvagee-strop.

If setting up with what is termed a boatswain's toggle, the double block of the luff is hooked to a strop which goes round both parts of the lanyard under the toggle.

A boatswain's toggle is simply a piece of hard round wood; it is used by taking a round turn round it with the lanyard ; and then by taking two round turns round both the parts of the lanyard, under the toggle, with a salvagee-strop, taking care to have both parts of the strop on the same side of the toggle.

This plan is much approved of by riggers, as the lanyard never jambs, nor do you run a chance of bursting the yarns of the lanyard.

Another plan, for setting lower rigging up, is by making a cat's-paw in the end of the lanyard, and hooking the double block of the luff to it, this plan is most objectionable, as the lanyard invariably jambs, and in many cases you burst the outside yarns of the lanyards ; therefore, in all cases, a boatswain's toggle should be used.

Futtock Rigging

Is composed of iron rod and chain, the foremost shroud only being of chain, the remainder iron rods. The upper ends of the shrouds are fitted with legs to bolt to the futtock-plates, the lower ends are shackled to the necklace round the lower masthead, they are parcelled and served over with spunyarn ; an iron Scotchman is seized to the shrouds of the lower rigging, in the wake of the futtock-rigging, to prevent it chafing.

When the futtock-plates are sent up, and rove down through their respective holes in the top rim, send the futtock-shrouds up one at a time and shackle them on in place.

Q. How do you send topmast crosstrees in place ?

A. Gantlines are placed on the topmast-head for this purpose.

Send the end of the gantline down abaft the top, make it fast to the centre forepart of the crosstrees, bend an after-gantline to keep it clear of the top and lower cap, sway the crosstrees above the cap, slack the after-gantline, let the fore part rest against the mast, and the after part on the cap, make a rope fast to the after part of the crosstrees, and reeve it through the eye-bolt in the cap each side, and a man in the top to attend them to prevent them slipping off, lower the topmast, take the gantlines off the topmast-head. As the topmast goes down, the crosstrees will gradually come down on the lower cap in the right position to go over the topmast-head when the mast is again swayed up. The spare topmast is generally used for this purpose, and after the crosstrees are in place, the mast is swayed up, and fidded, to ascertain all is right ; they are then sent down, and stowed in the booms or chains. The heel of the fore-topmast being taken aft, and the main and wizen forward.

Q. How do you rig a topmast a

A. Sway the mast up, so as to have the crosstrees about 4 ft. above the lower cap, and put the gantline or gantlines, on for sending the topmast rigging up. There are two plans for sending topmast rigging over the topmast-head, either by, putting a gantline and two man-ropes on the after part of the topmast-head, or by placing two gantlines on the after part of the tressletrees, and the man-ropes on opposite sides of the topmast-head.

Shackle the tye-blocks to the foremost legs of both the necklaces, and the jib halyard-block to the after-leg the starboard side, and topmast-staysail halyard or jibstay-block to the after-leg the port side of the fore-topmast necklace.

The jib and staysail halyard blocks are sometimes shackled to eye-bolts, driven up through the fore-part of the topmast tressletrees and crosstrees, and clenched above, which forms a much better lead ; it saves time to get the hanging-blocks in place, before sending or setting the topmast rigging up.

The iron binding of the blocks should be smoothed down at the edges, and the ends of the pins covered with leather, to prevent them cutting into the masts.

Nail the bolster cloths in place, the same as for the lower rigging, put the sail-tackle pendant round the topmast below the crosstrees.

For Staying the Masts.

Hook the to lower block of the fore to the bowsprit cap the main to an eye-bolt in the foremast-head, or a strop round the foremast-head, and the mizen to an eye-bolt in the mainmast-head, or a strop round the mainmast-head.

The topmast rigging is fitted in the eyes, and the deadeyes turned in the same as the lower rigging, the top Burton pendant has only one leg of a side to hook the top-Burton to.

The topmast rigging is placed over the masthead the same as the lower rigging, after the Burton pendant is placed, the first pair of shrouds the starboard side, then the first pair the port side, so on until all the shrouds are in place ; then the first pair of backstays the starboard side, then the first pair of backstays the port side. Then the third and last pair of backstays, which is fitted with a single leg of a side and a horseshoe-eye, so the backstays shall lay fair on the quarter of the mast.

NOTE.- Single backstays, fitted with a horseshoe splice, are always put over the masthead first, after the shrouds, in Portsmouth Dockyard, therefore they become the quarter backstays.

All backstays are now turned in alike, and set up with dead-eyes the same as the rigging, as quarter backstays.

There are always three of a side down to second class frigates, below that, only one pair of a side.

Breast or shifting backstays are done away with in the Navy, but if they should ever be used, after the topmast shrouds are placed, send the breast backstays up, which are one on each side ; they are spliced together to form the eye.

Bend the gantline, on 3 ft. below the eye, the port side, and stop it along the starboard-leg, sway it up, and cut the stops as they come to the block, sending the starboard breast backstays down its own side ; they are set up with a runner and tackle, instead of being set. up, like the others, with dead-eyes.

In French ships of war the topmast breast-backstays are used instead of yard-tackle pendants and whips, having fiddle blocks seized in them for reeving the falls.

When required for hoisting boats in or out they are run out to the yard-arms, to the required distance, by a single whip, and secured round the yard-arm by a strop and toggle, thus doing away with the lumber on the main and foreyards of yard-tackle pendants and whips, leaving them much clearer for working studdingsails.

NOTE.-The " London " and " Princess Royal," when commanded by Captain (now Admiral) Sir Lewis Tobias Jones, in the Black Sea, had their topmast breast backstays fitted in this way.

When not in use as yard-tackle pendants and whips, the single blocks are hooked in the chains, the hauling part of the falls are hitched round the ass of the lower block, and coiled down, the standing part of the fall, which is secured by being hitched round the backstay above the fiddle-block, is cast off, rove through the pipe in the ship-side inboard, and used as a temporary hauling-part to set the backstay up, thus doing away with the necessity of having the whole length of the fall on the upper deck.

All backstays are usually served with sennit in the wake of the braces, so as to do away with the use of mats.

To send the Topmast-Shrouds over the Topmast-Head.

Bend the gantline 3 ft. below the eye-seizing, and stop it to the eye, pull up on the gantlines when the first seizing is up to the gantline-block, cut it, pull up again on the gantlines, and place the shrouds over the masthead.

The quarter backstays are then set up in the usual way, one pair of a side and set up with dead-eyes.

If you are sending the topmast rigging up by a single gantline on the after-part of the topmast-head, you must hang the shroud by the man-ropes, cast of the gantlines, unreeve it, dip it clear of the eye of the shroud, reeve it the reverse way, and pay it down for the next pair.

If you are sending the shrouds up by gantlines placed on the after tressletree, as soon as the second seizing is up to the gantline block, reeve, if the starboard shroud, the port man-rope, which is placed on the topmast-head through the eye, and bouse it down in place ; this latter plan, for small vessels, is much to be preferred, and in ships where the topmast-heads are not too long, much time is saved in working the two gantlines.

In large ships, where the topmast rigging is very heavy, the single gantline on the after-part of the topmast-head is the best and easiest plan.

Funnels are used in small ships for, the topmast rigging, the same as for topgallant rigging, only they are square instead of round.

Q. How are the lower dead-eyes for the topmast rigging fitted

A. The lower dead-eyes of the topmast rigging are iron stropt, and, like the lower ones, swivel ; they are connected to the necklace of the lower mast by the futtock shrouds.

It requires great care in placing the lower rigging, so the futtock rigging will lead clear between the lower shrouds without chafing them ; but if the lower shrouds ride, there will be great difficulty in reeving them, and constant chafing afterwards.

Iron Scotchmen are placed on the lower rigging, so as to prevent chafing the lower shrouds.

Q. What is the difference in the fitting of the topmast shrouds

A. The first or foremost pair of shrouds each side, has a sister-block seized in them for the topsail lifts and reef-tackles, and the foremost shroud on each side is wormed, parcelled, and served all the way down.

Q. How do you send up and place the topmast stays, fore, main, and mizen over the topmast-head, and how are they set up ?

A. For the Fore or Main.- The stays are placed one on top of the other, seized together in the crutch, and two seizings are put on each side of the collar ; if the jib-stay is fitted to secure at the masthead and set up on the forecastle, all three stays can be sent up together, the jib-stay uppermost ; the gantlines are sent down before all, and bent to the crutch of the stays and stopped to the collars, swayed up, and when the seizing on the collars are up to the gantline-blocks they are cut, and the eyes are lashed abaft the topmast rigging with a rose-seizing.

The legs of the collar of the jib-stay are passed down through the collars of the fore-topmast stays, and lashed in a similar way to the topmast stay abaft all, and below them. It takes it more clear of the foot of the fore top-gallant sail, and brings less strain on the topmast-head.

In large ships, where the stays are heavy, it is the best plan to send them up by a top-Burton, which is hooked to a strop round the fork of the stays.

The starboard stay is always the upper stay.

The fore-topmast stays are rove through the sheaves in the bees of the bowsprit, through holes in the spritsail gaff, and set up in the head, the port or inner stay having previously been rove through hanks for the topmast-staysail.

Main Topmast-stays.

In all screw ships they both lead through iron-bound clump blocks, shackled to the hooks at the foremast-head above the rigging, high enough to clear the peak of the gaff-foresail, and are set up to iron-bound hearts in the deck. Paddlewheel steamers have but one stay that reeves through the fore cap, and sets up to a collar under the third pair of shrouds.

The mizen topmast stays set up to a thimble, stropped round the eyes of the main shrouds ; in screw ships there is an iron-bound clump-block above the rigging, similar to the main topmast-stays.

In sailing ships, the upper main topmast-stay leads over a chock between the fore tressletrees ; the lower one leads through a clump-block bolted through the foremast, under the top ; both are set up to iron-bound hearts in the deck.

Q: How do you set up topmast rigging?

A. A top-Burton and runner are used for this purpose. The double block of the Burton is hooked to the Burton-pendant, and the single block to a thimble in the end of the runner ; the other end of the runner is secured round the shroud that is to be set up, about 10 ft. above the top, or as high up as the length of the runner will allow with two round turns, and the end is dogged round with the lay of the rope and stopped.

The end of the lanyard is rove through the thimble, in the crown of the runner-block.

A sheet-bend is formed round the neck of the strop, in which a belaying pin, or any round piece of wood is inserted, to prevent it from jambing.

The end of the Burton fall is led on deck, where it is worked.

If a hook were substituted in the crown of the runner-block, instead of the thimble, a boatswain's toggle could be used for setting up topmast rigging, the same as lower rigging, by which much time would be saved.

Q. How are topmast-stays turned in ?

A. On end, with the end parts in amidships. Hearts are generally used by the dockyard riggers in large ships, and in small vessels, thimbles. For neatness in large ships, dead-eyes are frequently substituted for hearts.

Q. How are the lanyards for topmast-stays rove ?

A. If dead-eyes are used in a similar way to lower or topmast rigging, the end is secured by a Matthew Walker knot in the upper dead-eyes. If hearts are used, the standing part of the lanyard is spliced in the bolt in the deck, to which the lower heart is secured. If thimbles, the standing part of the lanyard is spliced in the thimble in the stay.

Q. What purchases are used for setting topmast-stays up, and how are they applied ?

A. Luff upon luff.

For a Fore Topmast-stay.

The single block of the first luff or forecastle jigger is hooked to the lanyard of the stay, and the double block to a salvagee-strop on the stay, or the tail of the double block of the jigger dogged round the stay ; the fall is led in through one of the pipes on the forecastle, cat's-pawed, and the double block of another luff or forecastle jigger is hooked to it, the single block being hooked to a convenient place to form a fair lead, it is then steadily walked up until the topmast-stays have the strain of the mast, or the sail tackle by which the mast has been placed in the position required is slack.

To Set a Main Topmast-stay up.

Hook the single block of a luff to a salvagee-strop well up the stay, and the double block to the lanyard, then hook the double block of the second luff with another salvagee-strop well above the single block of the first luff, and below the clump-block through which the main topmast-stays are rove, and the single block to a cat's-paw in the hauling part of the first or lower luff ; reeve the fall through a leading block on deck, and steadily walk it up until the stays have the strain ; both stays should be walked up together.

The mizen topmast-stays are set up with top-jiggers, the double block of the jigger is hooked about 10 ft. or 15 ft. up the stay, and the single block to the lanyard ; it is generally set up by hands in the top.

Q. What is the difference in the rigging of a fore, main, and mizen topmast?

A. The fore topmast has an extra stay to the main - viz., the jib-stay. The mizen has only one topmast-stay.

Q. How do you get a topmast cap in place ?

A. In small vessels it is swayed up by gantlines, and put on by hand.

In large ships a topgallant-mast is used in a similar way that a topmast is for a lower cap.

Lash the fore and mizen topgallant-mast rope blocks the starboard side, and the main the port side.

To reeve the mast-rope for this purpose, take the end up through lubber's-hole, on the starboard-side, for the fore or mizen, and the port side for the main, reeve it through the block at the topmast-head from aft forward, down through the mast-hole in the crosstrees, then through the thimble of the lizard, through the sheave-hole in the heel of the topgallant-mast, and through the thimble of the topgallant lizard ; haul enough through to reach the royalmast-head, and rack the two parts together ; reeve the lizard that is on the hauling part through the royal sheave-hole, and hitch it to its own part ; the lizard on the standing part is rove through the topgallant sheave-hole, and hitched to its own part.

Sway the mast up, and point it through the topmast crosstrees.

Two gantlines are secured to the topmast-head for thin purpose ; overhaul one of them down before all, bend it to the cap, and sway it up to the topmast-head.

Make the other gantlines fast, so that the cap will hang square above the eyes of the rigging, for the topgallant-mast to enter the round hole, then sway the topgallant-mast 2 ft. or 3 ft. through the cap, and lash it fair for going on the topmast-head, sway up until the cap is above the topmast-head, then slew the topgallant-mast until the cap is fair for going on, then lower away until the cap is in place ; beat it well down with a commander, when it bears fairly all round in place, make the standing part of the topgallant-mast rope fast to the foremost eyebolt in the topmast cap ; lower the mast, and let the weight come on the standing part with the same racking on ; then unlash the block, and hook it to the after eyebolt in the cap on the port or starboard side, according which mast it is. Haul taut the mast-rope, take a turn with it and cast the racking off.

Q. How is a topmast necklace secured, and what is it made of ?

A. A topmast necklace is merely a chain-strop, the fore having two open links or legs on each side fox the hanging or topsail tye-blocks, jib and fore topmast staysail halyard-blocks and the main and mizen, one open link or leg each side for the topsail-tye, or hanging-blocks.

The necklace is placed over the topmast-head, above the crosstrees, and under the bolsters.

NOTE.-In Portsmouth Dockyard the chain strop is done away with, the necklace is now formed out of an iron plate, with lugs for long links for the hanging blocks.

Q. How are the bolsters on the topmast secured ?

A. The topmast bolsters, like the bolsters on the lower mast, are chocks of wood, half-rounded, so as to form a smooth surface for the eyes of the topmast rigging to lay on ; and are scored out underneath to fit snugly down on the necklace.

The necklace and bolsters are secured to the crosstrees, before the crosstrees are sent aloft.

Q. How do you rig a topgallant and royalmast ?

A. Topgallant rigging is placed over a funnel, which is made of copper to fit above the hounds of the topgallant-mast ; being of a smooth surface, it does not chafe the eyes of the rigging.

To rig a Fore Topgallant Funnel.

Send the gantlines down before all, and make it fast to the stays, about 6 ft. below the funnel, stop it to the funnel ; pull up on the gantline, and place the funnel over the hole in the topmast cap, in readiness to receive the topgallant-mast, stop the stays to the crosstrees ; send the gantlines down abaft the top for the starboard pair of shrouds, place them over the funnel, then send the port pair of shrouds up and place them ; then the starboard pair of backstays, then the port pair of backstays and place them.

The main and mizen topgallant-masts are rigged in a similar way, with the omission of a flying jibstay.

Main and mizen royalstays are now rove through sheaves in the after-part of the fore and main topmast crosstrees. Iron jacks, or arms, are also fitted to the lower rim of topgallant funnels. The fore has six, the main five, and the mizen two. On the fore the blocks for the flying-jib halyards, fore topgallant-buntlines, and the topgallant studdingsail-halyard, are shackled to the four foremost ones, Jacob's ladder being shackled to the two after ones. On the three foremost lugs of the main, the main topgallant buntlines, and topgallant studdingsail halyard-blocks, are shackled, Jacob's ladder to the two after ones. The mizen Jacob's ladder is shackled to the two lugs which are on the after part of the funnel.

Royal Funnels.

A royal funnel is made of copper, and similar in shape to a topgallant funnel.

A false royal masthead is fitted to go far enough down the funnel to be secured by screws ; it is in every way the shape of the royal masthead, fitted with the lightning conductor, and a hole for the spindle.

Place the royalstays and backstays on the funnel, reeve the signal halyards and put the truck on. Send it up, and place it over the topgallant funnel, ready to ship on the head of the mast.

Sway on the mast-rope, when the head of the mast is through the topgallant funnel, place the royal funnel and track, and reeve the royal halyards ; when the mast is high enough, settle the topgallant funnel down in its place, and when the sheave is above the cap, reeve the topgallant yard-rope : shackle the span-blocks far topgallant studdingsail halyards and Jacob's ladder, abaft all to the jacks attached to the funnel. The spindle goes with a screw into the false masthead.

N.B.-In most cases the flying-jib halyards block-strop is worked round the chafing grommet when the funnel is not fitted with jacks.

A fore topgallant stay is rove through the dumb-sheave in the jib-boom end, through the dolphin-striker, and set up to one of the knight-heads.

The main and mizen are led through a hole in the lower caps, and set up, the mizen in the main, and the main in the fore-top

The fore royalstay is rove through the dumb-sheave in the flying jib-boom end, through the lower part of the dolphin-striker, and like the topgallant stay, is set up to one of the knight-heads.

The main and mizen are rove through a sheave in the after part of the main and fore-topmast crosstrees, and set up to a thimble a secured to the eyes of the lower rigging, the mizen in the main, and the main in the foretop.

Q. How do yon clothe a bowsprit ?

A. On whichever plan a bowsprit is rigged, the rule is, the clothing is commenced at two-thirds the length of the bowsprit from the knight-heads, but owing to the long bows ships now have, this must depend on the length of the cut-water.

There are two plans for clothing a bowsprit-viz., heart plan, or the strop or bale-sling plan.


This plan is generally adopted in Portsmouth Dockyard

Inner bobstay collar

Outer bowsprit shroud collar

Inner bowsprit shroud collar

Outer forestay collar

Inner forestay collar

Outer bobstay collar

Middle bobstay collar


N.B.-The bobstay collars are placed, the diameter of the bowsprit apart.

Strop or Bale-sling Plan

Inner forestay collar

Outer bowsprit shroud collar

Inner bowsprit shroud collar


Inner bobstay collar

Middle bobstay

Outer forestay collar

Outer bobstay collar

In this way the forestay is planed inside, for convenience in removing the collar if necessary.

An extra bobstay is fitted, reaching from the lower stem-hole to the bowsprit, just inside the cap called the cap-bobstay.

In rigging a bowsprit, the first thing to be done is to rig a stage for the men to work on, as follows :- Take two topmast studdingsail-booms, or any other spars of that description, rig them out of the head-port over the rail, hook the double block of a luff to the cap of the bowsprit, and the single block, to a lashing on the end of the spars : haul them out, and secure their heels on the headrails ; lash a third spar across the outer ends, to keep them open, and secure them to the end of the bowsprit by slashing. Lash two planks athwart them, one near the inner, the other near the outer end of the spar ; then lay as many planks as required to form a platform, nailing them for security to the two athwart-ship planks.

The bowsprit is supported at the hole in the bows, which it passes through by wedges the same as the lower masts are at the partners ; it is also secured by chain or rope gammonings two in number, inner and outer gammonings, which are passed over the gammoning-fish, on the bowsprit, and through holes in the stem.

The gammoning-fish, or saddle is well-tarred, the ends of the chain are passed over the bowsprit, from the starboard side, through the holes in the stem, and over the bowsprit, and shackled to their own parts underneath ; the turns are then passed with the other ends, so that the foremost ones on the bowsprit are the after ones in the stem ; each turn is hove taut, as it is passed, by reeving the gammoning through snatch-blocks made fast to the bobstay-holes on the cutwater, bringing the bight through the hawse-hole, and toggling on to tackles led from the capstan.

Before coming up the tackles, the chain is secured, by nails driven through it, into the fish or gammoning pieces, also by the wedges driven into the gammoning-hole in the stem.

The last turns are frapping turns, passed over some well greased hide, and set up by a tackle or a runner led through a block on the bumpkin.

In rope-gammoning, racking turns with spunyarn would be used, instead of nails. Chain-gammoning stretches after much use, and should therefore be attended to, when about to set up rigging.

The man-ropes are spliced round a thimble, through an eye-bolt each side of the bowsprit-cap, and a thimble spliced in the other ends, to set up to the knight-heads with a lanyard, and attached to the forestay by stirrups.

The bowsprit is secured outside downwards by the bobstays, and sideways by the shrouds.

The forestays pull upwards, and are always placed between two bobstays, so as not to strain or distress the bowsprit.

The inner bobstay or inner forestay collar, according to the plan the bowsprit is to be rigged, is lashed on two-thirds the length of the bowsprit from the knight-heads.

All collars, before being placed, are well fidded out. The bobstay-collars are lashed on top.

The forestay-collars below, and the bowsprit shroud-collar,, on the quarter of the bowsprit, the lashings are hove taut by means of a Spanish windlass ; when all the collars are in place, cleats are nailed to keep them from shifting in or out.

In some cases they are fitted without being lashed, the thimble reeving through its own part.

Bowsprit-shrouds are usually of chain, secured to the collar by a rope lanyard, and to the eye-bolt in the bow by a slip ; all bobstay collars are placed the diameter of the bowsprit apart, which leaves a proper distance for the other collars.

Bobstays are rove through the hole in the cutwater, middled, and spliced, and the hearts seized in, ready for setting up, the drift for the lanyards between the heart in the bobstay, and the heart in the collar is, for the inner bobstay, the diameter of the bowsprit, the middle one 3 ins. less, and the outer one, 6 ins. less.

The lanyard is half the size of the bobstay ; if wire, the lanyard of the bobstay is the same size as the bobstay, and the standing part is made fast with a running-eye, either round the bowsprit close to the collar, or round the heart of the collar ; reeve as many turns as you can without riding, well tar and grease them, hook the double block of a luff to a strop round both parts of the bobstay near the cutwater, and the single block to the lanyard, bring the end of the fall through a block hooked to a strop round the bowsprit, haul through the slack, and make a cat's-paw in it, hook the double block of another luff to it, and single block to the knightheads, and haul every turn taut.

The standing parts of the lanyards should be made fast on opposite sides alternately, so as to endeavour to keep the blocks of the luff clear of each other in setting up.

After each bobstay has been drawn into place, shorten up for a final pull, and walk all three down together ; rack the turns, and pass the riders, rack these again, and when the last turn is taut, rack the end to the other part.

Sometimes the bobstays are set up on both ends of the lanyards, this is done by reeving one end through a leading block made fast round the bowsprit.


The bumpkins are stepped, one each side of the bows, to a beam fitted for the purpose, they are secured downwards, and sideways by chain guys, shackled to the bows, and set up to the bumpkin-end, to eye-bolts attached to an iron band that is on the bumpkin-end, and clamped to one of the crossbeams of the head-rail ; it is tapered off at the end, to prevent the foretack blocks from slipping in.

Q. How do you get a bowsprit cap on ?

A. Bowsprit caps are put on and taken off with the jib-boom, in a similar way that a lower cap is with a topmast.

Q. How do you rig a jib-boom ?

A. First point it over the knight-heads, lightning conductors downwards, get a whip on the forestay, and hook the single block to a strop round the jib-boom, about 10 ft. or 12 ft. from the jib-boom end, which will take it into its place on the bowsprit, with the end far enough through the bowsprit cap to admit of placing the funnel to receive the rigging.

The funnel is fitted with an iron band round it with two legs to it ; the one on top is for the slip of the jibstay, and the one underneath is to shackle the martingale stay ; before placing the funnel on, put the jib-traveller on, if it is intended to use one.

How to place the Rigging over the Funnel.

1st. A good chafing grommet, close to the iron band, driven well down to protect the eyes of the rigging from being cut.

2nd. Foot ropes.

3rd. The starboard jib or spritsail guy.

4th. The port one, seize the foot-ropes on to the guys, about 18 ins. from the eye.

5th. The jackstay, which is fitted in most cases with an eye over the funnel, and a small eye in the other end to set up to the bowsprit cap ; it is also fitted with stops for stowing the jib.

6th. Shackle the martingale stay on, one end to the eye-bolt under the iron round the funnel, and the other end to the dolphin-striker.

When the martingale stay is made of wire rope, there is an eye spliced at each end, one of which goes over the funnel and the other over, and close up to the shoulder, on the point of the dolphin-striker.

After the rigging is placed over the funnel, the flying jib-boom iron is put on the end of the jib-boom, with the hole for the flying jib-boom on the starboard side.

To rig the jib-boom out, reeve the heel rope, bend the jib-halyards, or hook the foretop sail tackle to the jib-boom end ; pull on the heel rope, and rig the jib-boom out, keep as much strain on the jib-halyards, or sail tackle, as will keep the heel from rising off the saddle.

When out, the heel is secured by two chains, the heel and crupper chain, both fitted with slips.

The heel chain is in two pieces, and shackled to eye-bolts on either side of the bowsprit cap. The starboard piece having a slip in the other end, the port piece is brought round the heel of the jib-boom, there being a score there to receive it, and extends about 2 ft. up the starboard side, when it is secured by the slip in the starboard piece.

The crupper chain is passed round the bowsprit, and over the notch in the jib-boom made to receive it, and secured to one of its own links by a slip.

To set up the Rigging.

Steady taut the jumper-guys, so as to allow the gaffs to come into their required position, pull up on the spritsail-lifts and guys, the gaffs will come nearly horizontal, then steady taut the back-ropes, and remove the jib-halyards or sail-tackle from the jib-boom end.

The jibstays are generally set up in the head, and seldom, shackled to the jib-boom funnel.

The jibstay is either rove through the sheave hole in the jib-boom end, through another in the dolphin-striker, and its end (which is pointed and fitted with a becket for bending a reeving-line) set up in the head, or it is secured by a slip to the eye-bolt in the upper part of the iron band that goes round the-jib-boom funnel.

Another plan is the jib-traveller, worked the same as in a cutter, only with a jib-stay, the standing part of the stay is secured by a slip, or seized to the traveller, the other end is rove through a block at the masthead, and set up by a tackle, or sometimes, in small vessels, by a runner and tackle on deck.

The traveller is worked by an outhaul, through the sheave-hole in the jib-boom end, and an inhaul.

The object of this plan is to be able to ease the jib in when blowing fresh.

Small ships have an iron martingale or dolphin-striker, and iron whiskers or outriggers, projecting from the catheads, instead of spritsail-gaffs, through the ends of which the jib-guys are rove, and set up in the fore chains clear of the anchors.

It is found convenient, when a jib-boom is fitted with a funnel, to fix two iron projections on the fore part of the. bowsprit cap, so as to be able to secure the funnel in a direct line with the jib-boom hole in the bowsprit-cap, in shifting jib-booms.

Q. How do you rig a flying jib-boom out?

A. By a heel-rope, fitted with a tail-block and made fast to the boom-iron, then make the end fast to the flying-boom end, and stop it to the head ; haul on the heel-rope, and point the boom through the iron.

How do you Rig a Flying Jib-boom ?

1st. Put on a chafing grommet close to the hounds.

2nd. The foot-ropes.

3rd. Flying-jib-guys.

4th. Flying martingale-stay.

5th. Reeve the flying jib-stay through the sheave-hole ; the royal stay leads over a notch, or half-sheave in the flying jib-boom end.

Splice an eye in the ends of the foot-ropes, then take a half-hitch, and seize it round the jib or spritsail-guys, and put another seizing on before the hitch.

Q. Where is the flying jibstay set up ?

A. It is rove through the sheave-hole in the end of the flying jib-boom, through the dolphin-striker, and set up with a purchase to the port knight-heads.

To Ship the Spritsail Gaffs

Put the jaws through the bow ports, clap a tackle on the topmast stays, hook the single block to a strop put inside the jaws of the gaff, and whip them out in place near the bees of the bowsprit, and just outside the outer bobstay collar ; there is a score cut in the jaws, for the topmast stays to lead through.

To Rig a Spritsail Gaff

1st. Put the brace on.

2nd. The lift.

3rd. The guys.

4th. The after-guys, and spritsail-martingale, it is sometimes called a jumper-guy.

Put a clump-block on the gaff outside, and close to the guys, for the foremost guy of the swinging boom.

A double strop is fitted round the gaff, half-way out from the jaws, with a thimble seized in it, for the flying jib-sheets to lead through.

To Ship a Dolphin-Striker in Place.

Hook the double block of a tackle to the bowsprit cap, and the single block to a strop below the jaws of the dolphin-striker; and trice it up close to the bowsprit, where it is secured by jaw-ropes round the bowsprit, just inside the cap.

Q. How are spanker, or trysail-gaffs fitted, and what gear is attached to them ?

A. In most cases the gaff is fitted with two iron bands round them, with eye-bolts on top, the inner one is half-way and the outer one five-sevenths out from the jaws, for hooking the peak halyards-blocks to, which are two single iron-bound blocks; on the gaff end is an iron spindle or outrigger, with a sheave in it, for reeving signal-halyards through, for hoisting the ensign.

The throat halyard-block is a double iron-bound block, and is hooked to an eye-bolt just abaft the jaws, which is clenched underneath.

In the gaff end, there is a sheave-hole for the outhaul, and in most cases a small iron band with an eye-bolt on each side for the vangs.

The jaws is the fork or foremost part of the gaff, that fits round the mast, and is formed by two chocks, secured to the gaff by iron hoops, or bands ; when the spanker-boom is near the binnacle, the hoops, or bands, for securing the chocks, or jaws, are always metal ; the jaws are covered in the wake of the mast with liquored [sic] leather.

Q. What rigging is attached to a gaff ?

A. Peak and throat halyards, vangs, downhaul and tack-tricing line ; inhaul, outhaul, and jaw-rope.

Q. How is the boom of a boom-mainsail, or spanker-boom fitted, and what rigging is attached to it?

A. It is fitted with jaws, the same as the gaff, which rests on a saddle, and is secured to the mizen trysail-mast or mainmast of a brig, with cleats and a clasp hoop.

If the sail is fitted with an outhaul, there is a sheave in the boom end.

There is an iron band, with an eye-bolt on each quarter of it, for the topping lift-blocks, the boom is coppered over the part that rests in the crutch, there are cleats, and eye-bolts fitted alternately each side of the boom-end for the reef-pendants, four in number.

There are two double blocks, or two single blocks, according how the boom or spanker-boom is fitted, on the after-part of the boom, for the boom-sheets, placed so as to make a fair lead with those placed in the stern of the ship on each quarter.

The standing rigging of a boom is, jackstays, foot-ropes, jaw-rope.

Main or Spanker-Boom Root-Ropes.

It is becoming very general to fit a foot-rope to spanker-booms.

To fit them.

Form a cut splice in the centre of a piece of rope to go over the boom-end, splice an eye in the two ends, and seize them round the boons about 3 ft. or 4 ft. inside the taffrail.

Main or Spanker-Boom Jackstay.

It is a very convenient thing to have a jackstay on the after part of a spanker-boom, for all it is not usual. It is merely a piece of rope with an eye spliced in each end, the outer one being sufficiently large to go over the boom-end, the inner one is set up to the strop of the boom-sheet block.

Another plan of fitting a spanker or main-boom jackstay, is to form a Matthew Walker's knot in the outer end, reeve it through an eye-bolt on top of the boom, splice an eye in the inner end, and set it up to another eye-bolt placed for the purpose.

How do you Rig a Main Yard ?

1st. Next the slings, on either side, jeer-blocks.

2nd. Topsail-sheets blocks.

3rd. Truss-strops.

4th. Clew-garnet blocks.

5th. Rolling tackle-strop.

At the Yard-Arm ?

1st. Chafing-grommet.

2nd. Foot-ropes.

3rd. Head-earring strop.

4th. Jackstay

5th. Yard tackle-pendants.

6th. Brace-blocks.

7th. Lift-blocks.

Leech-Line Blocks

There are two on each side of the yard, and the general rule for placing them is, the outer one is seized on the jackstay, about 6 ft. inside the quarter iron ; the inner one about the same distance outside the clew garnet-block ; but before seizing them on for a full due, their proper position should be determined on when the sail is bent.

Slab-Line Blocks

There are two on each side of the yard, fitted with tails, they are hitched to the jackstay, alongside the leech-line blocks. These blocks hang down before the yard, and abaft the courses.

There are two double blocks fitted also with tails, made fast to the jeer-block strops ; they also hang down before the yard, and abaft the courses, to lead the slab-lines on deck.

Bunt Slab-Line Block

Is a single block fitted with a tail, made fast to the slings of the yard, and hangs down before the yard and abaft the course.

The only difference in rigging a main or fore yard is, a main yard has preventer brace-blocks on the fore side by which the yard is worked.

The jeer blocks are single thick, double-stropped, having long and short legs.

The blocks stand fore and aft on top of the yards, the two eyes of the strops are lashed the fore side of the yard, leaving sufficient room between the blocks for the slings, the lashing is passed rose-seizing fashion, and should be half the size in circumference of the stropping of the block. There are two such blocks on both the fore and main yards. The crossjack yard is sent up and down by the mizen Burtons.

The topsail-sheet, or quarter-blocks, are single thick, double-stropped, stand athwartships under the yards outside the jeer-strops, and are lashed on top of the yards.

The size of the lashing should be half the circumference of the strop, and is passed rose-seizing fashion ; there is a span put round the strops, under the yards, above the blocks, to keep them in their place ; the two eyes of the span are lashed together. After passing sufficient number of turns, take a half-hitch with the end of the lashing, round the middle part of all turns of the lashing, expending the end by passing frapping turns in a fore and aft direction round the centre and both parts of the span.

The truss strops are usually of rigging chain ; they are four in number, two for shackling the standing parts to, and two for the hauling parts to reeve through ; they are lashed on the same as rope strops, the starboard truss standing part up and inside, the port truss standing part down and outside.

The clew garnet-blocks are single stropped, standing athwartships, and are lashed at twice the length of the block outside of the truss-strop, the blocks underneath the yard a little before the centre, so as to be clear of the topsail-sheets. The size of the lashing should be one-third the circumference of the strop, and passed rose-seizing fashion.

Rolling-tackle strop is generally a grommet ; an eye is formed in it and parcelled over on top of the yard, abaft the jackstay, and then it is driven taut up on the quarter, at two-thirds out from the slings, to the quarter iron.

Lower-yard slings are two pieces of chain, the length of each piece is about 2 ft. more than once the round of the yard, more or less, according to the size of the yard ; there is a ring welded in one end of each piece, and a long link at the other end, to receive the bolt of a shackle that connects the slip ; in reeving them round the centre of the yard the ends with the rings come up the aft side, and the two ends with the long links come up the fore side, and reeve through the ring ; the slings are hauled well taut, and seized to the ring, taking care to keep the ring well forward ; a shackle with its bolt through the two end links, is connected to the slings, the slip goes through the shackle ; the other end of the slip is shackled to the two ends of a piece of chain called the masthead slings.

A chafing-grommet is a common grommet put on the yardarm, and beat well down for the rigging to lay on.

Q. How are foot-ropes fitted ? - if to go over yard-arm with standing eye - if over goose-neck with a welded thimble.

A. Foot-ropes are rove through the stirrups, the eyes are put over the yard-arms, and beat well home, or a thimble over the goose-neck ; the eyes of the stirrups are placed over the eyebolts of the jackstay, which are previously well served or hitched with spunyarn ; the thimbles in the other end of the foot-ropes are secured abaft the yard, in the bunt, to the slings. The length of the foot-rope, from the fork of the eye to the thimble, should be one foot less than the yard is from the centre to the shoulder of the yard-arm. It has been found convenient in large ships to put quarter foot-ropes, which, crossing the bunt from each quarter, enables the men to get a footing on that part of the yard

Head-Barring Strop

Is a strop with a thimble seized in it, placed over the yardarm, and beat well home to the foot-rope.


The ends are rove through the eyebolt over the eyes of the stirrups, a thimble is then spliced in each end, the eyes over the yard-arm are beat well home to the head-earring strop, a lanyard half the size of the jackstay is placed in one thimble, and rove through the other, by which it is set taut up in the bunt of the yard ; a space of at least 6 ins. is left between the two thimbles for this purpose.

N.B.-All jackstays on lower and topsail yards are now of wire rope, and the thimbles are seized, not spliced in.

Yard-Tackle Pendant.

In large ships they are fitted to remain on the yards, the eye is put over the yard-arm, and beat close home to the jackstay ; in small ships they are fitted with a hook and thimble, and put on when required for use.

N.B.-Now the yard-tackle pendant is made of wire-rope it is fitted to a strop that goes over the yard-arm with union thimbles.

Brace Blocks

Put the strop over the yard-arm, and beat it close home to the yard-tackle pendants, with the head of the pin of the block upwards. The yard-arm strops are single ; those on the blocks are double, so that the blocks may lie horizontally. For greater ease in bracing up, the preventer blocks on the main yard are placed on the fore side.

Lift Blocks

Are single, and single-stropped. Put the strop over the yardarm, and beat it close to the brace block.

Q. How do you rig a crossjack yard

A. 1st. Topsail-sheet blocks.

2nd. Truss strops.

There is an iron band round the centre of the yard, with an eye in it, and a shackle to receive the slip, that is shackled to the masthead.

At the Yard-Arm.

1st. Foot-ropes.

2nd. Jackstays.

3rd. Brace-blocks.

4th. Standing part of lifts, which are always single.

Sometimes the topsail-sheets are rove through one double block in the bunt of the yard underneath, reaching the deck on opposite sides, which enables the yard to brace up easier and sharper.

Q. How do you rig a main topsail-yard ?

A. 1st. Tye-blocks are iron-bound, with swivel and lugs, and are connected by a bolt and forelock to an iron band round the yard, the ends of the bolts are covered with leather, and the edges of the iron stopping smoothed down, to prevent them cutting into the masts. Tye-blocks and boom-irons should always be fitted to spare yards.

2nd. Parrel.

3rd. Quarter-blocks. These are double blocks, for the topsail clew-line and topgallant-sheet to lead through, single-strop lashed outside parrel, and on top of the yard, lashing half the size of strop.

4th. Rolling tackle strop, is a grommet-strop made round the yard, with a thimble seized in it, and is placed half way out from the centre of the yard to the shoulder or cleat.

A pendant, for sending the topsail-yard up and down, is fitted with a running-eye round the quarter of the topsail-yard, the other end has an eye spliced in it ; it is well parcelled for hooking the sail tackle to, and is lashed close outside the quarter-strop, on the opposite side of the yard.

At the Yard Arms

1st. Chafing grommet, fitted the same as lower yard.

2nd. Foot-ropes, fitted with an eye to go over the yardarms, and beat close home to the chafing-grommet ; an eye spliced in the other end, and seized to the opposite quarter of the yard ; sometimes the outer eye goes over the goose-neck instead of the yard-arm ; when fitted this way an additional stirrup is required on the shoulder of the yard-arm.

3rd. Head-earring strop, fitted the same as a lower yard.

4th. Jackstay, fitted the same as lower yard.

5th. Brace-blocks. The strop is put over the yard-arm and beat close home to the jack stay.

6th. Lift-blocks, if double lifts ; if single lifts, the standing part of lift ; in the case of single lifts, the eye goes over the yard-arm close to the brace-block ; in the case of double lifts, the strop of the block goes over the yard-arm, and is beat close home to the strop of the brace-block.

7th. Second reef-tackle block. The blocks on the topsail-yards for the second reef-tackle are attached to the strop with union thimbles, the strop going with lashing eyes round the yard-arm outside all rigging.

8th. Flemish horse. A thimble is spliced in the outer end which goes over the goose-neck, an eye is spliced in the inner end and is seized inside the shoulder, at the distance of once and a half the length of the yard-arm from the shoulder. Not required when foot ropes go to goose-neck.

Topsail-yards (now that reef-beckets have come into general use) are fitted with two jackstays, so that by having two rows of toggles, the reef-beckets may be, more clear of each other, when there are two or more reefs in.

The only difference in the rigging of a fore and main topsail-yard is, there are no jewel-blocks to a main topsail-yard, now that main-topmast studdingsails are done away with in the Navy.

The difference in rigging a mizen topsail-yard from a main or fore is, the Flemish horse is fitted with clip-hooks to the eyebolt at the yard-arm, and the brace-blocks face forward.

A parrel to a topsail yard is what a truss is to a lower yard, or a traveller on a boat's mast is to the yard of the sail it is hooked to. It consists of two pieces of rope which are wormed, parcelled, and served, and an eye spliced in each end ; one piece is shorter than the other, and is placed, the centre of the short leg on top of the centre of the long leg, seize them together with two short flat seizings, fill up the cutling with strands, and cover the parrel with leather. When in use the parrel is placed abaft the topmast, taking care to have the seam of the leather outside. The long legs are passed underneath the yards, up before all, and lashed to the short legs with a piece of rope called a parrel-lashing : in shifting topsail-yards, only one lashing is cast adrift, so the parrel always remains fast to the yard. A small greasy mat is secured to the yard between it and the mast. The length of the long leg, when fitted, will be from eye to eye, twice the round of the yard, and two-thirds the round of the topmast ; and the length of the short leg, when fitted from eye to eye, will be two-thirds the round of the topmast ; allowing four times the round of the rope on each leg for splicing the two eyes, will give the proper length to cut the rope for fitting a topsail parrel without waste ; the ends are put in once and a half.

Q. How do you rig a topgallant yard ?

A. 1st. The slings. Put a strop on the centre of the yard with a thimble seized in it.

2nd. The parrel.

3rd. Quarter blocks, which are double for the royal sheets and topgallant clewlines to reeve through.

4th. A grommet-strop, placed one-third out from the centre with a thimble seized in it. Through this the lizard is rove when the yard-rope is stopped out.

At the Yard-Arms.

1st. The foot-ropes.

2nd. Head-earring strop.

3rd. The jackstay.

4th. Braces.

5th. Lifts.

The jackstay is secured to the yard by strips of leather nailed over it.

Royal yards are rigged in a similar way,

Topgallant Parrel.

A topgallant parrel consists of two strops, one long, and one short ; the long strop is spliced round the yard, and has two seizings on it, one close to the yard, the other to seize a thimble in. The short one is spliced round the yard with a thimble seized in it ; they are served with spunyarn, and, like a topsail parrel, are covered with leather.

The long strop is put on the port side of the fore and mizen, and on the starboard side of the main topgallant yard. The parrel lashing is spliced in the eye of the long strop. When secured in place, the lashing comes on the quarter of the mast ; pass three or four turns with the lashing through the thimbles of the strop, and hitch it round its own part.

To Fit the Parrel.

For the long strop. Take once the round of the yard, once the round of the mast, and once the round of the rope, which would be the length to marry the strop : then allow sufficient end to splice it.

The short strop is spliced round the yard with a thimble seized in it.

The Length to fit it

Take once the round of the yard, once the round of the thimble, and twice the round of the rope. The strands of the splice are put in once and a half, and served all over. The strops are spliced, served, and the seizings put on before placing them on the yard

N.B.- A royal parrel is fitted in a similar way.

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