Contents
 
Boy's Manual of Seamanship and Gunnery

Fourth Instruction

Rigging

PART II

Reeving Running Rigging

Q. Reeve the gunning gear of a course ?

A. fore and main tack and sheet-blocks are clump-blocks, with a thimble in the strop to shackle to the clew of the sail.

To Reeve a Fore Tack

Splice a running eye in the end of the standing part, and put it over the bumpkin ; reeve the other end through the tack-block in the clew of the sail, from forward aft, through the block on the bumpkin, from out in, though the sheave hole in the bulwark inboard. If fitted with slips, fit the standing part of tack with a thimble.

To Reeve a Main Tack.

Splice a hook in the standing part, and hook it to an eye-bolt in the deck, placed for that purpose, near the main tack block ; reeve the other end through the block on the clew of the sail, from forward aft, and through the main tack block on the deck from forward aft.

The standing part is sometimes fitted with a slip.

To Reeve a Fore or Main Sheet.

Splice a hook in the end of the standing part, and hook it to an eye-bolt abaft the channels ; reeve the other end through the sheet-blocks in the clew of the sail, from out in, and through the sheave near the standing part inboard.

To Reeve a Fore or Main Clew Garnet

Take the end up through the clew garnet-block on the lower yard, reeve it from in out, down through the clew garnet-block, which is lashed or shackled to the clew of the sail from in out, take the end up, and secure it round the lower yard, outside the quarter-block, with a timber hitch.

To Reeve Fore and Main Buntlines.

Reeve the buntlines, through the upper sheave of the buntline-block, then reeve both ends through the double-block, which is hooked to the foremost eyebolt of the lower cap on either side, from aft forward, down through the sheave holes in the fore part of the top ; round the buntline-block, close up to the double block, then bend the ends of the buntlines to the foot of the course, either by toggling or clenching them. The buntline-whip is rove through the lower sheave of he buntline-block, and both ends led down through lubber's-hole on deck, and are rove through blocks or sheave holes. Two single blocks, in one strop, on end, are sometimes used instead of fiddle-blocks, as buntline-blocks ; they are called shoe-blocks. When there is sufficient drift, buntlines are sometimes rove with single legs, and double whips. The ends of the legs are rove through thimbles, spliced into the inner holes at the foot of the courses, and made fast to the outer holes.

To Reeve Leech Lines, Fore or Main

They are rove through a double-block under the top, from in out, down through the leech-line blocks that are seized on the jackstay of the lower yards before the sail, and are clenched or toggled to the leech of the sail ; there are two on each side in large ships, but only one in small vessels.

To Reeve Fore or Main Slab-Lines.

They are rove through a double-block, on the quarter of the yard, from in out, through the slab-line blocks seized on the jackstay of the lower yard, between the yard and the sail, down abaft the course, and are clenched or toggled to the leech of the sail, in a similar way to a leech-line ; when there are two leech-lines of a side, there are also two slab-lines ; in taking a course in they act the same as a brail would to a fore and aft sail.

To Reeve a Bunt Slab-Line.

It is a single rope rove through a tail block, fast to the slings of the lower yards, it leads down abaft the sail, and is clenched to the foot.

To Reeve a Reef Tackle.

Reeve the end of the fall through a leading block at the lower cap, from in out, through a cheek in the lower yard-arm from in out, then through a block which is secured to the reef-cringle in the leech of the sail by clip-hooks, from in out, and make the end fast to the boom-iron with an inside clinch, the other end of the fall is led on deck, with sufficient length to admit of lowering the sail on deck ; thus, in shifting or bending courses, there is no necessity for using a Burton.

To Reeve a Bunt-Whip

It is a single rope, with a clasp-hook in one end, to hook to the bunt becket, and rove through a single block, lashed to one of the upper links of the lower slings ; the hauling part being led on deck.

To Reeve a Fore Bowline

Reeve it through the block on the bowsprit, from down up ; splice a running eye in the end, and bend it over a toggle in the bowline-bridle, in the leech of the foresail. The fore bowline-blocks on the bowsprit are span-blocks, fitted round and under the bowsprit, outside the inner forestay collar.

To Reeve a Main Bowline

The main bowline is fitted with a light runner and tackle ; the runner is rove through a thimble, which is attached to the lower bowline-bridle, on the leech of the mainsail, by a slip toggle ; the runner and tackle are hooked forward by the foremast, and is always shifted from side to side in working ship, by the first part of quarter-deck men.

REEVE THE RUNNING GEAR OF A TOPSAIL

To Reeve a Rope Topsail Sheet

Reeve the end through the quarter-block on the quarter of the lower yards, from in out, up through the cheek at the lower yard-arm, through the block in the clew of the sail, from in out, and secure the end round the lower yard-arm with an outside clinch.

To Reeve a Chain Topsail Sheet

To reeve a chain topsail-sheet, bend a hauling-line to the inner end of the chain, reeve it down through the cheek at the lower yard-arm, in through the rollers underneath the lower yard, through the gin in the slings of the yard, and secure it to the lugs of the whip-block by a bolt ; the standing part of the whip is made fast to an eyebolt in the deck, and the hauling part is rove through a sheave-hole in the bitts, or a leading block ; the other end of the sheet is secured to the clew of the topsail with clasp hooks or shackled. The cheek at the lower yard-arm is of iron when it is intended to reeve chain sheets.

To Reeve a Topsail Clewline

Take the end up through lubber's-hole, reeve it through the foremost sheave of the quarter-block on the topsail-yard, from in out, through the block which is lashed on the after part of the clew of the sail, from in out, and secure it round the quarter of the topsail-yard outside the quarter-block, with a timber-hitch.

To Reeve a Topsail Buntline.

Take the end up through lubber's-hole, through the cheek of the tressletrees at the topmast-head, from aft forward, down through the thimble of the buntline-span ; splice a running eye in the end, and place it over the buntline-toggle, in the foot of the sail. In reeving a buntline that has been in use, or with a running eye already spliced in it, reeve it the reverse way, that is, place the eye over the toggle in the foot of the topsail, reeve the other end up through the thimble of the buntline-span, through the cheek of the topmast tressletrees, from forward aft, and pay the end down through lubber's-hole on deck, and reeve it through its proper sheave in the bitts.

Q. What are buntline spans, and their use ?

A. Buntline spans are simply two pieces of rope, about 2 ins. Or 2˝ ins. in size, according to the size of the topsail, and about one fathom and a half in length, with a thimble spliced in one end, through which the buntlines are rove, the other ends are knotted abaft the tye (in harbour) with a reef knot, and round the neck of the tye block at sea ; the reason the buntline span is secured round the neck of the tye block at sea, is to prevent the foot of the sail rising above the yard, also to spill the sail in taking the third or fourth reef in.

To Reeve a Topsail Reef-tackle

Take the end up through lubber's-hole, inside the topmast rigging, through the upper sheave of the sister block, from in out, down through the sheave at the yard-arm ; through the reef-tackle block, from in out, and secure the end round the goose-neck with an inside clinch.

To Reeve the Second Reef-tackle.

To reeve the second reef-tackle, take it up through lubber's-hole through a tail-block at the topmast-head, from in out, down through the block on the yard-arm, and bend it to the second reef-tackle cringle in the sail with a half-hitch, and the end seized back, or with clip-hooks if a single reef-tackle. The second reef-tackle cringle is placed between the second and third reef-cringles.

If a double reef-tackle, it is rove through a block, toggled or hooked to the cringle in the leech of the sail, and secured with an inside clinch round the goose-neck of the topsail-yard.

To Reeve a Foretop Bowline

Take the end out through the sheave-hole in the head-rail, through the sheave-hole in the bees of the bowsprit, or through a block at the bowsprit end : splice a running eye in the end, and place it over the toggle in the lower bowline bridle in the leech of the sail.

To Reeve a Maintop Bowline.

Take the end up through lubber's-hole through a block lashed to the eyes of the fore rigging, and bend it with a running eye over the toggle of the middle bowline bridle in the leech of the main topsail.

To Reeve a Mizentop Bowline.

Take the end up through the inner sheave of the double block the crossjack brace is rove through, splice a running-eye, and put it over the toggle on the lower bowline bridle, in the leech of the mizen topsail, in a similar manner to the main and fore.

To Reeve a Bunt-Whip

A bunt-whip consists of three single blocks, forming a runner and tackle. The runner-block is fitted with a long tail, which is secured round the topmast-head, or a thimble in the strop, and lashed under the crosstrees, or to the necklace ; one end of it has a hook spliced in it for hooking to the bunt-becket - the other end, the tipper block of the tackle, is turned in it. The lower block of the tackle is fitted with a tail, or a thimble, in the strop of a block, and is secured to the eyes of the lower rigging ; when not in use it is hooked to a strop, to the eyes of the lower rigging, and kept up and down the mast ; the hauling part is worked from the top.

The long Bunt-Whip.

This-is simply a single rope, rove through a block, under the topmast crosstrees with a hook spliced in one end for hooking it to the bunt-becket ; the hauling part is on deck. It is used when hauling out to, or furling from a bowline

Reeve the Running Gear of a Topgallant Sail.

To reeve a topgallant sheet, take the end up through lubber's-hole, through the after sheave of the quarter-block on the topsail yard, from in out, up through the cheek at the yard-arm, before the lift and reef-tackle, up through the clew of the topgallant-sail, and place the sennit-eye over the spring-toggle, which is seized in the clew of the sail.

To Reeve a Topgallant Clewline

Take the end up through lubber's-hole, through the foremost sheave of the quarter-block, on the topgallant yard from in out, and bend it to the clew of the topgallant-sail with a sheet-bend.

To Reeve a Topgallant Buntline

A topgallant buntline is a single buntline, fitted with two legs, each leg has a running eye spliced in the end of it, which goes over the toggle in the foot of-the topgallant-sail, the other end is rove through the thimble of the lizard of the yard-rope, which acts as a buntline-span, then through a block from forward aft, which block is seized to the eye of the topgallant stay, down into the top, or through lubber's-hole on deck.

To Reeve a Fore Topgallant Bowline

Take the end out, and reeve it from down up, through a span-block, which is fitted round the jib-boom funnel or seized to the jib-guys, and bend it to leech of the topgallant-sail, with a running-eye over the toggle. A main topgallant bowline is rove up through a sheave-hole, in the after part of the fore topmast crosstrees ; a mizen topgallant bowline is rove through a block seized to the main topmast shrouds.

Reeve the Running Gear of a Royal.

To reeve a royal sheet, take the end up through lubber's-hole if led on deck ; if not, out of the top, up between the crosstrees, through the after-sheave in the quarter-block on the topgallant-yard, from in out, up through the cheek or sheave-hole at the yard-arm, up before the lift, and bend it to the clew of the royal with a sennit-eye over a spring toggle.

To Reeve a Royal Clewline.

Take the end up through lubber's-hole, if led on deck, or out of the top between the crosstrees, reeve it through the quarter-block on the royal yard, from in out, and bend it to the clew of the royal with a sheet bend. In large ships, royal sheets and clewlines are generally worked from the tops, and not led on deck.

RUNNING GEAR OF JIB AND FLYING-JIB.

To Reeve the Jib-Halyards.

Take the end up the starboard side abaft all, reeve it from aft forward, through the jib halyard-block, then make a bowline with the end round the jibstay, pay it down, splice a thimble, with a clasp-hook on a swivel in the end, and hook it to the head of the jib.

To Reeve a Jib Downhaul

Take the end out on the starboard side through the sheave-hole in the head-rail, through the jib downhaul-block at the jib-boom end, up through the upper hank or grommet,* and bend it to the head of the jib or over the thimble in the jib-halyards, with a sheet-bend. Jib-sheets, in large ships, are fitted with double whips and pendants, an eye being formed in the bight of the pendant, and attached to the clew of the jib by a strop and toggle ; in some cases they are lashed or fitted with a shackle and screw pin. In small vessels the jib-sheets are single. The luff of a jib is attached to the jibstay by hanks and lacing, and the tack is secured to the jib-boom end with a tack lashing, which is spliced in the tack thimble, two or three turns being passed round the jib-boom, and through the thimble in the tack of the jib, and the end hitched round its own part ; sometimes it is fitted with a strop and toggle instead of a tack-lashing.

* In addition to the lacing of a jib, there are always two or three hanks or a grommet, at the head of the luff.

To Reeve the Flying-Jib Halyards

Take the end up the port side, abaft all, reeve it from aft forward through the flying jib halyard-block, and pay it down on deck the port side of all the stays, splice a clasp-hook on a swivel in the end, and hook it to the head of the flying jib.

To Reeve a Flying-Jib Downhaul.

Reeve it through the sheave-hole in the head-rail on the port side, take it out underneath the man-ropes, and over the jib-guys, through the flying jib downhaul block, at the flying jib-boom end, from down up, through the three upper hanks, and bend it to the head of the sail, or over the thimble in the halyards, with a sheet bend. The flying jib is attached to the flying jibstay by a lacing : the tack is secured in like manner to the jib by a tack-lashing round the flying-boom end; the sheets are fitted exactly in a similar way to the jib-sheets, and connected in like manner to the clew of the sail. In small vessels they are single, similar to the jib-sheets, and attached to the sail in the same manner.

TO REEVE THE RUNNING GEAR OF STAYSAILS

Fore Topmast Staysail.

To reeve the fore topmast staysail halyards, take the end up the port side, through the fore topmast staysail halyard-blocks (which is shackled the port side of the topmast-necklace) from aft forward, down before all, through the block which is hooked to the head of the sail, send the end aloft, and secure it to a link in the topmast necklace close to the halyard-block. These halyards are of great use in shifting the fore topsail or jib-boom.

To Reeve a Fore Topmast Staysail Downhaul.

Reeve the end out on the port side, through the head-rail, through the downhaul-block on the bowsprit end, from down up, up through the three upper hanks, and make it fast with a sheet-bend to the head of the sail. Tack lashing is spliced in the thimble in the tack of the sail, and passed two or three times round the bowsprit, each turn being passed through the thimble in the tack of the sail, the end is hitched round all parts of the lashing. Fore topmast staysails are seized to hanks round the port fore topmast stay. If a lacing is used instead of hanks. it is only rove through every other eyelet-hole in the luff of the sail, and round the stay : being seized to the eyelet-holes, it is not rove through. The sheets are fitted with whips and a pendant.

TO REEVE THE RUNNING GEAR OF A SPANKER OR BOOM-MAINSAIL.

To Reeve the Peak Halyards.

Take the end up the port side, through lubber's-hole, and reeve it through the port sheave of the double-block, which is iron-stropped and hooked to the after part of the mizen lower cap ; then down abaft the top, through the outer block on the gaff, from forward aft, up through the starboard-sheave of the double-block at the cap, from up down ; down abaft the top again, and through the inner block on the gaff, from aft forward, send the end aloft, and secure it round the neck of the double-block with a running-eye.*

The standing part of the peak-halyards is frequently made fast with a running-eye round the mizen topmast head, in which case they are rove through the inner block on the gaff first, from aft forward, and through the outer block last, from forward aft, but in the same way as before, through the double-block on the after part of the lower cap.

* N.B.-This applies to the boom-mainsail of a brig.

To Reeve the Throat-Halyards of a Spanker.

Take the end up the starboard side, abaft the mast, reeve it through the foremost sheave in the chock, abaft the trysail-mast, from starboard to port ; down through the throat halyard-block on the jaws of the gaff, from port to starboard, up through the after-sheave in the chock, from starboard to port ; then send the end down, and secure it with a running-eye over the neck or lower part oŁ the block on the gaff. If the gaff is fitted with a double-block, or a span with two single blocks round the jaws, the standing part is made fast round the neck of the upper block, or through a hole in the chock, with a stopper-knot.

To Reeve a Spanker-Foot Outhaul.

Reeve the end up through the sheave in the boom-end through a clump-block, fitted either with a lashing-eye or a clip-hook, to the clew of the sail, from forward aft, and secure it over the boom-end by an eyesplice ; sometimes it is fitted with a pendant and whip, in which case a block is spliced in the end of the pendant, and the other block of the whip is hooked to an eyebolt, under the jaws of the boom.

To Reeve a Spanker-Head Outhaul

When a spanker is fitted at the head with an outhaul and inhaul, the head of the sail is attached to small iron hoops which travel on an iron rod underneath the gaff.

The outhaul is fitted with a pendant and whip. The pendant is rove through a clump-block, which is lashed to the gaff end ; one end of the pendant has a thimble and hook spliced in it, for hooking to the head-earring thimble in the sail, the other end has a thimble, or one of the blocks of the whip spliced in it ; the other block of the whip is fitted with a hook, which is hooked to a strop at the jaws of the gaff. It is frequently made of chain, in which case a treble ironbound block is hooked to the lower cap instead of a double-block for the peak-halyards, the third sheave is used to reeve the chain outhaul through.

To Reeve the Outhaul.

Reeve the end up through the starboard outer sheave of the treble-block, from forward aft, down through the sheave in the end of the gaff, and shackle it to the head-earring thimble of the spanker ; an iron-bound single block is shackled to the other end, through which a whip is rove to another iron-bound block, hoofed to the deck by the wizen mast.

The Inhaul.

The inhaul is a single rope, with a hook spliced in it, which is hooked to the thimble in the head of the sail, led along the gaff through a block at the jaws of the gaff on deck.

The Tack-Tracing Line.

The tack-tricing line is a double whip, the upper block secured to the jaws of the gaff, and the lower block is fitted with a tail, which is bent to a thimble in the lower part of the luff of the sail.

BRAILS

Peak-Brails

Span-blocks are fitted on the gaff or the inner and outer peak-brails. The outer blocks are single, and seized round the gaff two-thirds out ; the inner blocks are double, and seized on, one-third out on the gaff. Both the inner and outer peak-brails are rove through them.

The throat-brails are rove through a block seized to the jaws of the gaff.

Throat-Brails.

The middle brails are rove through single blocks fitted with a span round the trysail mast, half way down, or seized to the tuff of the sail.

Small vessels are only fitted with one peak-brail.

A treble block is now seized to the jaws of the gaff, which takes the peak and the throat-brails, therefore a fiddle-block is now used on the gaff for the inner peak-brails.

To Reeve Brails.

They are each in one piece of rope, and when the sail is bent and hoisted, the position for the brails is determined on ; they are middled, and the bight of each brail seized to the after-leech of the sails, as marked, and rove through their respective blocks, from aft forward down on deck.

BOOM-SHEETS

Spanker-Boom Sheet

In large screw or sailing ships there are two double blocks on the boom, and three single blocks each side of the ship aft, one acting as a leading block ; the standing part of the sheet is spliced in the eye-bolt at the boom-end.

Far small screws and paddle-wheel steam-vessels, there are two double and two single blocks, the single block being on the boom, the standing part is made fast to an eye-bolt in the boom-end ; where there is a stern gun, the blocks in the quarter should be fitted with a shackle.

In brigs, boom-sheets are rove through two double blocks on the boom, and two double blocks, and a leading block inboard on the quarter. Reeve the end through the leading block, from forward aft, through the lower sheave of the block on the boom from aft forward, through the lower sheave of the double block inboard from forward aft, so on, until the fall is rove in full, making the end fast round the boom, end with an eye-splice, or splicing it into an eye-bolt.

A Lazy Guy

Is a pendant with a hook spliced in one end, and a single block in the other ; the fall is rove through another single block with a hook, the standing part is spliced in the ass of the block, in the pendant.

When in use, the pendant goes round the boom, and hooks to its own part between the topping-lifts and sheets, the block of the fall is hooked in the main chain for a brig, and the wizen for a ship ; it is used when running free, to steady the boom.

Jaw Ropes

A jaw rope is apiece of rope rove through a hole in the jaws of the boom or gaff, from out in. A stopper-knot is worked in the end to keep it from coming through ; it is passed round before the mast through a number of round pieces of wood, called trucks, through another hole in the jaws of the boom or gaff on the opposite side, from in out, and a figure-of-eight knot is made in the end, to keep it from slipping through ; it is to a boom or gaff what a parrel is to a yard.

To Reeve the Topping-Lifts

The standing part is spliced round a thimble to an eye-bolt attached to an iron band round the boom, about 12 ft. from the outer end, and is rove through a clump-block, iron-bound - in a brig, bolted to the main tressletrees, and in a ship, bolted to the mizen tressletrees, from aft forward, down, through the snatch on the boom, A thimble is spliced in the end for hooking the tackle to.

The tackle is rove through a single and a fiddle-block, the standing part of the fall being spliced in the ass of the single-block ; the fiddle-block is hooked to the weather-topping lift, and the single-block to an eye-bolt under the jaws of the boom. A stopper is fitted round the boom, inside the snatch, for stopping the topping-lift in tacking, so as to shift the tackle.

When the topping-lift is fitted single, after the end is rove through the clump-block at the tressletrees, a double-block is spliced in the end, and a fall is rove to a single block, hooked either in the chains or by the mast.

Pangs, or Peak-Downhauls

Vangs in large ships are double, and in small vessels single. There is an iron band round the gaff a short space, or about one-seventh in from the gaff end, with an eye-bolt on either side of it ; to these eye-bolts, the vang-blocks, which are single iron-bound blocks, are hooked with clasp -hooks.

The vangs are rove through the blocks, the standing part is spliced, if double, round a thimble in an eye-bolt in the ship's side, close to the fife-rail, or eye-splice put over the under part of a belaying pin, the hauling part rove through a sheave close to it.

In large ships they are fitted with a pendant and whip ; the standing part of the pendant is spliced round a thimble in the eye-bolt in the gaff, and a single block is spliced in the other end, through which the whip is rove, the hauling part being rove through a sheave in the fife-rail, and the standing part secured, as described for a vang.

A Single Vang

The end is merely spliced round the thimble in the eye-bolt on the gaff, and the other end rove through a sheave in the fife-rail.

STUDSAIL GEAR-LOWER STUDSAILS

To Reeve Lower Studsail Outer Halyards.

Take the end up before the top, through the span-block at the foretop masthead, from in out, down before the boom through the block at the topmast studsail boom-end, down on the forecastle, and bend it to the middle of the yard, to which the outer half of the sail is laced, with a studsail halyard-bend.

The halyards are sometimes bent only one-third out, according to the size of the sail.

The inner halyards are simple double whips ; the upper block being fitted with a tail, which is hitched to the collar or the forestay ; the lower block is either fitted with a hook or tail, and made fast to the inner corner of the head of the lower studsail.

To Reeve Lower Studsail-Tack.

Reeve the end out through the sheave-hole in the gangway, through the tack-block at the swinging boom-end, and bend it to the clew of the sail with a sheet-bend, or a running-eye and cross toggle, the long and short sheets are formed out of one piece of rope. The sheets are rove through the thimble in the inner clew according to the length required, crossed and seized ; the long sheet is rove through a tail-block, fast to the foremost dead-eye, through one of the ports inboard ; the short sheet is merely passed over the netting inboard, and is only used for taking the sail in.

To Reeve a Tripping-line.

Take the end up abaft the foreyard, and reeve it through a block under the top, or secured to the foremast-shroud of fore-rigging, through a block on the inner yard-arm of the lower studsail-yard, through a thimble in the after-part of the sail, and bend it to the tack with a sheet-bend.

TOPMAST STUDSAIL.

To Reeve the Topmast Studsail-Halyards

Take the end up through lubber's-hole, through the span-block at the topmast-cap from in out, down through the jewel-block on the goose-neck of the topsail yard-arm, between the yard and the boom, down abaft the lower yard inside the brace, and bend it to the yard to which the head of the sail is laced with a studsail halyard-bend one-third out.

To Reeve the Tack.

Take the tack up outside of the backstays and lower rigging, out to the lower yard-arm under the brace, reeve it from aft forward, through the tack-block at the topmast studsail boom-end, then in over the fore-brace, down on deck, and bend it with a sheet-bend to the clew of the sail.

The hauling part is rove through the inner sheave of double block, secured by a tail to the foremost shroud of the main rigging, the boom-brace being rove through the outer sheave of the same block, or through two sheaves in the ship's side, just before the gangway.

To Reeve a Topmast Studsail-Downhaul

Reeve the end up through the downhaul-blocks, which is seized to the outer clew of the sail, up abaft the sail, through a thimble on the outer leech ; splice a running-eye in the end, and place it over the outer yard-arm inside the earring.

Topmast Studsails

Are fitted with two sheets, a long and a short one ; the long one is worked from the deck, and the short one from the top, passing under the heel of the boom.

TOPGALLANT STUDSAIL-GEAR.

To Reeve Topgallant Studsail-Halyards.

Take the end up through lubber's-hole, through the span-block at the topgallant-mast head, from in out, down through a block at the topgallant yard-arm, before the yard, into the top, and bend it to the yard to which the sail is laced with a studsail halyard-bend one-third out.

To Reeve a Topgallant Studsail-Tack.

Reeve the end out through a block seized below the after dead-eye in the top, up, under, and outside the topsail-brace, through the tack-block at the topgallant studsail boom-end, in over the brace, and bend it with a sheet-bend to the outer clew of the sail.

The downhaul is bent to the inner yard-arm and led into the top.

The sheets are led over the topsail-yard into the top. Topgallant studsails have only one sheet. They are set and taken in from the top.

When blowing fresh, and a topmast-studsail is set, the lower studsail-halyards are often converted into a martingale for the topmost studsail-boom ; by taking an overhand-knot in them above the boom, placing a toggle to prevent the knot from jambing, and hauling down on the underneath part, which is either rove through an eye-bolt in the forecastle or secured to a cleat.

LOWER YARDS-JEER FALLS.

To Reeve the Long Main Jeers.

Both ends of the fall are fitted with beckets for bending a reeving line to. Reeve the end through the sheave-hole of the main-bitts, the starboard side of the main deck, from aft forward, up through the fair leader in the upper deck aloft and through the starboard sheave of the upper jeer-block, under the main top, from aft forward, down through the starboard jeer-block on the yard from forward aft, up through the port sheave of the upper block, from aft forward, down through the port jeer-block on the yard, from forward aft, and secure the end either round the strop of the upper block, to the tressletrees, or round the lower masthead ; the fall thus rove forms five parts. When used, the hauling part is brought to the after-capstan, on the main deck, in all large ships. In small vessels it is worked on the upper deck.

The fore jeers are rove in a similar way, commencing on the port-side first, and are worked in all large ships by the foremast capstan on the main deck.

When the main and fore-yards are up, and hung by the slings, the long jeers are unrove, and the sea jeers rove exactly in the same way with respect to the lead through the jeer-blocks, only the end of the falls do not come on deck, they are expended round all parts of the fall and hitched ; in the event of the chain-slings carrying away, the short jeers take the weight of the yards, and prevents them from being sprung, which sometimes occurs.

The cross-jackyard is sent up and down by the mizen burton, which is two double blocks.

To Reeve a Fore arid Main Lift.

Take the end up through lubber's-hole, reeve it through the after-sheave in the block at the lower cap, from in out, down before the rigging, through the lift-block at the lower yard-arm, from out in, up through the foremost sheave of the block at the cap, from in out, splice a running-eye in the end of it, worm and serve it, and place it over the yard-arm. In some cases it is clenched, and about two fathoms end left to act as a stopper for the topsail-sheets.

Cross-jack lifts are single, being either rove through blocks hooked to the lower cap, or passed over a saddle which is scored out on top of the lower cap, they go over the yardarm with an eye-splice - a thimble or block is spliced in the other end by which they are set up.

To Reeve a Fore Brace.

Reeve the end through the sheave in the main bitts, from aft forward, up through the block at the cheek of the mainmast from aft forward, take the end forward outside all the rigging, through the brace block on the fore-yard, from out in, and secure the end with an eye-splice round the same eyebolt, as the block is stropped on at the cheeks of the mainmast head.

The starboard-brace is fitted with a tricing-line, in large ships, from the mainstay, so as to be able to frap the brace in out of the way, in shifting main topsail-yards.

To Reeve a Main After-Brace.

Reeve the end through the main brace-block on the quarter from in out, through the brace-block on the yard, from out in, turn a double block in the end, reeve a purchase to a single block, which is hooked to an eye-bolt close to the main brace-block on the quarter ; this purchase is for hauling the brace taut, after the slack has been gathered in on the long end.

A tricing-line is fitted either side, for the purpose of tricing the lee brace up clear of the quarter davits ; they have two legs to them, with thimbles through which the after main-braces are rove, the tricing-line is rove through a tail or lashing-block secured to the after main shroud on either side above the necklace.

To Reeve a Preventer, or fore Main Brace.

Reeve the end through the sheave-hole at the fore bitts from aft forward, up through the outer sheave of the double block at the cheek of the foremost head, through the preventer brace-block on the main-yard from out in, and down through the inner sheave of the double blocks at the cheeks of the foremost head ; both ends are led through pipes or fair-leaders, down through the sheaves on to the main deck, where they are always worked in large ships.

These braces are frequently led across for the convenience of working ship.

To Reeve a Cross Jack Brace

Reeve the end through the sheave in the fife-rail of main rigging, through the outer sheave of the double block fast to the necklace at the mainmast-head, through the brace-block on the yard-arm, from out in, and splice the end in one of the links of the main-necklace, close to the double block ; these braces are frequently led across for the convenience of working ship.

To Reeve Truss Pendants and Falls supposing them to be of Chain

Reeve them through the clump-blocks which are ironbound and shackled to a bolt in the after part of the trestletrees, from aft forward, through the thimble of the truss-strop on the yard, from up down, through an iron clamp abaft the mast, which has a division in it, one for the upper, the other for the lower pendant, so as to keep them from riding, and also to keep them up in place, and shackle them to the truss-strop on the opposite side of the yard.

The ends of the pendants hang about two-thirds of the way down to the deck, and have a double iron-bound block shackled to each, through which the falls are rove.

In reeving the pendant the standing part will be inside the hauling part of the one rove first, and outside the hauling part of the one rove last.

To Reeve the Truss Fall

A single iron-bound block is hooked to the deck, abaft the mast with a ring in the ass of it for the standing part of the fall to be spliced, the end of the fall is rove up through the double block from forward aft, down through the single block from aft forward, up through the double block from forward aft, and then through a sheave in the fife-rail.

A tricing-line is fitted to the tress pendants, it is spliced in a thimble fast to the same shackle as the double or upper block of the fall, or about half-way down, and rove through a single block seized to the after-shroud above the futtock-rigging, so as to light them up in working ship. Small ships have only a single iron-bound block in the pendant for the falls.

When a fore or main-yard is fitted with rope pendants, the standing part is secured round the yard with a running-eye, and the fall is rove through the sheave-holes in the after-part of the trestletrees in the following way : the standing part of the fall is rove with a running-eye round the trues-pendants, rove through the inner sheave on the trestletrees, from forward aft, through the block in the truss-pendant, from aft forward, through the outer sheave in the trestletrees, from forward aft, and then through a sheave in the fife-rail on deck.

The cross jack trusses are always fitted in this way. The single block in the end of the pendant is seized in what is termed a soft-eye, which is to admit of the block being turned out easily in sending the yard down.

To Reeve a Yard-Tackle Whip

Take the end up through the upper sheave of the fiddle-block in the yard-tackle pendant, from in out, through the lower block, from out in, up through the lower sheave in the fiddle-block, from in out, and splice the end in the ass of the lower block. The hauling part is rove through a leading-block, placed as convenient.

A yard-tackle pendant and whip is fitted with two tricing-lines, viz. : a quarter and bill tricing-line.

To Reeve the Quarter Tricing-Line

The end is rove through a leading block fitted with a tail, or seized to the after-part of the lower yard on the quarter, out through a block seized to the jackstay, which hangs down abaft the yard, and sufficiently far in to bring the pendant, when triced up taut, along the yard ; the end is secured with a running-eye between the two sheaves of the fiddle-block, the hauling part is rove through a sheave in the fife-rail on deck.

To Reeve a Bill Tricing-Line.

The end is rove through a block seized close up to the seizing of the eyes of the lower rigging, the thud shroud from forward, an eye is spliced in the end, it is then rove through the thimble in the lower block of the whip, and placed over the bill of the hook.

The hauling part is rove through a sheave next to the quarter tricing-line in the fife-rail on deck.

When the yard-tackle and whip are triced up, the lower block of the whip is hooked to a strop round the same shroud, and close to the bill-tricing line-block.

Rolling Tackle.

A luff-tackle is used for this purpose, the single block being hooked to the strop on the yard, the double block to a strop round the lower masthead above the necklace ; the end of the fall is rove through a leading block or spare sheave in the bitts.

Frequently the yard-tackle pendant and whip is used instead of a rolling-tackle, by letting go the quarter and bill tricing-lines, bringing it along the yard, and hooking the single block of the yard-whip to a strop round the lower masthead, above the necklace, and hooking a snatch-block to the same strop for the hauling part of the fall, so as to give it a fair lead on deck, where it is rove through a leading block or spare sheave in the bitts.

TOPSAIL YARDS

To Reeve Fore or Main Topsail-Tyes

Fore and main topsail-yards, in large ships, are fitted with two tyes, one on either side, a. long and a short tye ; the long tye is used for shifting topsail-yards. In the lower end of the tye a is spliced a long-eye, in which the fly-block is seized ; the other end is rove (if the starboard-tye) through the starboard hanging block at the topmast-head, shackled to the topmast necklace from aft forward, down through the starboard tye-block, which is a swivel-block, bolted to the iron band round the topsail-yard, from aft forward ; the end is then sent aloft, hauled taut round the topmast-head, hitched to its own part, and the spare end stopped down to the foremost shroud, leaving sufficient drift for the fly-block to hang in a line with the lower cap ; hook the lower halyard-block to the after part of the chains, and reeve the halyards.

The standing part of the halyards is spliced in the ass of the upper fly-block, and rove through the lower block for the fore, from aft forward, through the upper block, from forward aft, and then through the sheave in the topsail-halyard bitts, or through a leading block hooked to an iron spur in the ship's side, from forward aft.

A main is rove in a similar way, only the hauling part is led forward ; and in large ships it is led through a pipe on to the main deck, through a leading-block, and there secured to a Samson-post.

A mizen topsail-yard, in small vessels, has only a single tye, which is rove through the sheave ,in the topmast-head, and shackled to the yard.

The halyards are rove on the port side exactly, and in the same way as the fore, and in line of battle ships worked on the poop.

In large ships the tye is generally rove on the bight in the following way : there is only one tye-block on a mizen topsail-yard, the tye is rove through either the starboard or port hanging-block at the topmast-head, from aft forward, down through the tye-block on the yard, if rove through the starboard masthead-block first, then reeve from starboard to port through the tye-block on the yard, up through the port hanging-block, from forward aft, splice a long-eye in each end of the tye, and seize the fly-blocks in. The halyards are rove in a similar way to the fore.

FORE AND MAIN TOPSAIL-LIFTS.

To Reeve a Double Topsail-Lift

Take the end from the chains up in a line with the third shroud, through lubber's-hole, inside the topmast-rigging, through the lower sheave of the sister-block, from in out, down to the yard-arm ; through the topsail lift-block, from in out, send the end aloft, and secure it round the topmast-head with a half-hitch, and the end seized back.

The lower end is rove through a clump-block in the chains, and in some cases led through a pipe in the ship's side inboard.

MIZEN TOPSAIL-LIFT

Mizen Topsail-Lift is Single.

To reeve it. Take the end out of the top, up inside the topmast rigging, through the lower sheave in the sister-block, from in out, splice an eye in the end, worm and serve it, and place it over the yard-arm.

A thimble is spliced in the other end, and it is set up in the top with a lanyard.

A single fore or main topsail-lift is rove in a similar way, only the end is set up in the chains.

FORE TOPSAIL-BRACE

To Reeve a Fore Topsail-Brace

Reeve the end through the sheave in the main bitts, from aft forward, through a block under the main trestletrees, through another block fast to the fork of the mainstay, then through the brace-block on the yard-arm from out in, and secure the end round the main topmast-head with a half-hitch, and seize the end back, or take a round turn round the topmasthead and splice the two ends of the braces together.

The leading-block on the fork of the mainstay leads the brace clear of the foot of the main-topsail ; sometimes the standing part is made fast to the mainmast-head with a seizing to the fork of the mainstay, to keep it clear of the main-topsail, and the hauling part is rove through a leading-block at the main topmast-head, under the eyes of the topmast-rigging ; it is generally considered the fore topsail-yard is more easily braced up.

MAIN TOPSAIL-BRACE

To Reeve a Main Topsail-Brace.

Reeve the end through the sheave in the mizen bitts, from aft forward, up through the leading-block, half way up the mizenmast, through the brace-block on the yard-arm, from down up, up to the mizen topmast-head, where it is secured ; but in most cases, in order to relieve the mizen topmast, it is led through a clump-block at the mizen topmast-head, fast under the eyes of the rigging, down to the after-part of the mizen chains ; a thimble is spliced in the end, and it is set up with a lanyard.

MIZEN TOPSAIL-BRACE

To Reeve a Mizen Topsail-Brace.

Reeve the end through a sheave in the main fife-rail up through lubber's-hole, through a leading-block at the mainmast-head, close up under the cap, stropped to an eye-bolt, from forward aft, through the brace-block on the mizen topsail yard-arm, from out in, and splice the end to the eye-bolt at the mainmast-head, where the leading block is secured.

These braces, like the cross jack braces, are frequently led across for the convenience of working ship.

Preventer Braces.

For lower yards, the yard-tackle pendant and whip is used, the bill and quarter tricing-lines are let go, the single or lower block of the whip is hooked, if the fore, in the main chains, and if the main, in the mizen chains, the hauling part is rove through a sheave in the ship's side, or leading block inboard.

For Topsail-Yards.

The sail-tackles are used for preventer-braces, or in some ships, tackles, fitted like sail-tackles, are kept in the tops ready to be used as preventer-braces, so as to have the sail-tackles always available for shifting topsails.

The pendant of the tackle goes round the yard inside the brace-block, and is hooked to its own part ; the lower block is hooked, if a fore topsail-yard, in the main chains, and the hauling part is rove through a tail-block secured to the foremost shroud of the main rigging, about the same height up as the double block for the topmast studsail-tack and boom-brace. If for a main topsail-yard it is secured in a similar way, the lower block being hooked in the mizen chains, and the hauling part rove through a tail-block, fast to the foremost shroud of the mizen rigging, about 10-ft. or 12-ft. above the nettings, or the hauling part is rove through the sheave where the main topmast studsail-tack was formerly rove when it was used in the Navy.

Rolling Tackle for a Topsail-Yard.

A top-Burton, or jigger, is used for this purpose ; the single block is hooked to the quarter-strop, and the double block to a strop round the topmast, above the parrell ; if a jigger is used, the hauling part is in the top, but if a Burton, the hauling part is sent down through lubber's-hole on deck,

TOPGALLANT GEAR

To Reeve Topgallant Halyards or Yard Rope

Reeve the end through the sheave in the bitts, from aft forward, up through lubber's-hole through the sheave-hole in the topgallantmast-head, from aft forward, pay the end down before all, through the grommet and lizard, and bend it with a studsail halyard-bend to the slings of the yard. At sea, a topgallant purchase is used on the yard-rope or halyard.

In large ships it is a purchase rove through two double blocks, the upper block is fitted with two tails, for dogging round the yard-rope, the lower block is a hook-block, ironbound, hooked on deck. When in harbour, the upper block is made fast to the after-shroud, above the futtock-rigging. The main is worked the starboard side, and the fore and mizen the port side of the deck.

To Reeve a Topgallant Lift.

An eye is spliced in one end, served and marled to the eye of the brace ready to go over the yard-arm ; in large ships, where double-braces are used, it is marled to the eye of the brace-block ; the other end is rove through a roller or thimble, from out in, and (in large ships through a sister-block seized in the topgallant-shrouds), down inside the topmast-rigging into the top ; a thimble is spliced in the end, and they are set up with a lanyard, i.e., the starboard lift of the fore and wizen, and the port of the main, they are called the short lifts. The other lifts, that is the port lifts of the fore and mizen, and the starboard lift of the main, are rove through thimbles secured by a strop to the eyes of the lower rigging, belayed to a cleat at the lower masthead, and are called the long lifts, so as to admit of the topgallant-yards canting; and is easily let go.

To Reeve a Fore Topgallant-Brace.

Reeve the end up through the sheave in the main fife-rail and lubber's-hole, and the block under the main topmast-crosstrees, through a leading-block fast to the collar of the main topmast-stay ; if a single brace, splice an eye in the end, and marl it to the fore topgallant lift, ready to go over the yardarm; if a double brace, reeve it through the fore topgallant brace-block, from out in, and make the end fast close to the block on the collar of the main topmast-stay.

All line of battle ships, and frigates above the sixth class, have double topgallant-braces ; the block on the yard-arm, however, is found inconvenient ; a good single brace, fitted with a whip under the lead, is found to give sufficient purchase.

To Reeve a Main Topgallant-Brace.

If a single brace, take the end up through lubber's-hole, through a block seized to the foremost shroud of the mizen topmast rigging, high enough to wont over the mizen topsail yard when hoisted. Splice an eye in the end, and place it over the topgallant yard-arm. If a double brace, instead of making an eye-splice in the end, it is rove through the brace-block on the topgallant yard-arm, brought back, and secured to the foremost shroud of the mizen-topmast, close to the block ; the hauling part is rove through one of the sheaves of the fife-rail abreast the mizen mast.

NOTE.-For the convenience of working ship, the fore topgallant and royal braces often lead forward.

To Reeve a Mizen Topgallant-Brace.

If single, take the end up through lubber's-hole, through a block either seized to a bolt on the after-part of the main lower cap, or to the after main-topmast shroud, just below the crosstrees, from forward aft, form an eye-splice, and put it over the yard-arm. If double, the end is rove through the brace-block on the yard-arm, and brought back and secured alongside the block on the after main-topmast shroud ; if the block is secured to an eye-bolt in the main lower cap, the standing part of the brace is secured round the ass of the block. The hauling part is rove through a sheave in the fife-rail abreast the main-mast.

ROYAL HALYARDS.

To Reeve Royal Halyards or Yard-lope.

Reeve the end through the sheave in the bitts, up through lubber's hole, through the sheave-hole in the royal masthead, from aft forward, pay the end down before all, through the grommet and lizard, and bend it to the slings of the yard with a studsail halyard-bend.

Two single blocks are kept rove on the yard-rope, and stopped in the top to form a purchase when the sail is set ; one, a hook-block, which is the upper block on the yard-rope, but becomes the lower block of the purchase when rove, is hooked to the lower trestletrees, the other block is fitted with a long strop and eye, the purchase is formed by taking it well up the yard-rope, forming a hitch over the long-eye with a bight of the yard-rope and placing a bight of the yard-rope through the eye in which a toggle is placed, so as to keep it in place, thus forming three parts.

Topgallant purchases, in small vessels, are the same, the toggle is iron, and well served.

To Reeve a Royal Lift

Splice an eye in one end to go over the yard-arm, and marl it to the outside part of the eye of the brace, reeve the other end through a thimble seized to the royal backstay - in large ships, between the royal shrouds, from out in, down into the top; splice a thimble in the end, and set it up with a lanyard.

NOTE.-For the convenience of squaring yards, the ends of the topgallant and royal lifts are rove through thimbles secured to the eyes of the lower rigging, and belayed to cleats at the lower masthead.

TO REEVE ROYAL BRACES.

To Reeve a Fore Royal-Brace.

Place the eye, when marled, to the lift over the yard-arm, and reeve the other end through a block seized on the fore part of the main topgallant funnel, from forward aft, and pay the end down between the crosstrees, through lubber's hole on deck, and reeve it through a sheave in the fife-rail.

To Reeve a Main Royal-Brace

Place the eye, when marled, to the lift over the yard-arm, and reeve the other end through a block seized on the fore part of the wizen topgallant-stay, pay the end down between the crosstrees, through lubber's-hole on deck, and reeve it through a sheave in the mizen fife-rail.

To Reeve a Mizen Royal-Brace

Place the end, when marled, to the lift over the yard-arm, and reeve the other end through a sheave-hole in the after part of the main topmast-crosstrees, through lubber's-hole on deck, through a sheave in the fife-rail.

LOWER OR SWINGING BOOM.

To Reeve the Topping Lifts

They are taken up on either side, inside the fore-rigging, rove through a clump-block, from in out, seized between the second and third shrouds of the fore-rigging, through another clump-block, fitted with a tail for a lizard, which is made fast outside the lift round the yard-arm when getting the boom out ; when the boom is square, or fore and aft, the tail-block is rounded close up to the block, seized between the second and third shroud of the fore-rigging, and the tail is coiled snugly down inside the futtock-rigging.

To Reeve a Fore-Guy.

Reeve the end out through a fair lead in the forecastle-bulwark, through a sheave on the bees of the bowsprit, from in out, through a clump-block on the spritsail-gaff, seized between the jumper and jib-guys, from in out, under the jib-guys, and splice the end round a thimble, through an eye-bolt about one-fourth in from the end of the boom.

To Reeve an After-Guy.

Reeve the end out through the lower sheave in the after part of the waist nettings, and splice the end round a thimble, through an eye-bolt secured to the same band as the eyebolt, and thimble for the fore-guy.

TOPMAST STUDSAIL-BOOMS

To Reeve a Topping Lift.

Take the end up out of the top, inside the topmast rigging, through the upper sheave of the fiddle-block at the topmasthead, from in out; splice an eye in the end, and place it over the boom end; when in use the other end is set up by a jigger in the top.

OF MASTS.

Lower Masts.

Q. How is a fore or main runner and tackle fitted, and the fall rove ?

A. Twice the length of the mast from the deck to the upper part of the trestletrees is the length of the runner, a long eye is spliced in one end to seize the double block of the fall in, similar to the topsail halyard-block in the topsail-tye.

The length of the fall is four and a half times the length of the mast from the lower cap to the deck.

The standing part is spliced in the ass of the single block, the hauling part is rove through one of the sheaves of the double block in the end of the runner, then through the single, and through the double block again ; when in use the end is rove through a single leading block, which is hooked to a strop or eye-bolt, as convenient.

Topmast.

A toptackle-pendant has a thimble spliced in one end to hook the upper block of the toptackle-fall to.

If a main, it is rove up through lubber's-hole, through the top block, hooked to the after eye-bolt, the starboard side of the lower cap, from aft forward, through the sheave in the heel of the topmast, from starboard to port. Make the end fast to the foremost eye-bolt on the port side of the lower cap with a half-hitch, and seize the end back, taking care to well parcel the pendant first in the wake of the eye-bolt. The fore or mizen is rove through the sheave in the heel of the mast from port to starboard.

The pendant is fitted sufficiently long to house the mast, and allow the upper block of the tackle to be below the futtock-rigging.

To Reeve the Pall

The upper block is a treble or double iron-bound swivel-block, according to the size of the ship, hooked to the thimble in the end of the pendant ; the lower block is a similar block, they are not always both swivel-blocks, in some cases the lower block is a swivel, and the upper a standing block, and vice versa; it is more convenient to have them both swivel-blocks, so as to move readily ; take the turns out of the fall in swaying the topmast. The lower block is hooked to an eye-bolt, placed for that purpose on the deck the fall is to be worked ; in line of battle ships it is either worked on the main or lower deck, a trap-hatch, about three planks in width, being cut in the upper deck to pass all parts of the fall through. The fall is always rove on the standing part, being the shortest part of the fall ; it is rove so as to have the hauling part of the main forward, and of the fore aft.

To Reeve a Fore or Mizen Toptackle Pendant-Fall.

Reeve the end through the leading-block which is secured, round the hook of the lower block with a long-eye, from aft forward, up through the trap-hatch, through the upper block from forward aft, so on until the fall is rove in full ; the standing part is secured by being hitched round the neck of the upper block, or round the pendant above the thimble ; it will greatly depend on the lead you wish, whether it is rove through the inner or outer sheave of the fall blocks first ; thus rove, it forms five parts ; the main is generally worked the starboard, and the fore and mizen the port side of the deck, depending how the sheave-hole in the mast is cut.

To Reeve a Topgallant Mast-Rope

Reeve the end through the sheave in the bitts from aft forward, up through lubber's-bole, through a sheave in the topmast-cap, or a block hooked to an eye-bolt in the after-part of the topmast-cap, through the lizard, then through the sheave in the heel of the mast, from starboard to port if a main, and port to starboard for a fore and mizen, and make the end fast to the foremost bolt in the topmast-cap with a half-hitch, and seize the end back.

If the topgallantmasts are on deck, lay them abreast their respective parts of the ship to which they belong, heels aft, and lightning conductors upwards. The halyards are rove through the sheave in the bitts, the starboard or port side, according as the sheave in the heel of the mast is cut. The main is generally cut from starboard to port, and the fore and mizen from port to starboard, up through lubber's-hole, through the sheave in the after-part of the topmast-cap, or a block hooked to an eye-bolt in the after part of the topmast-cap, down through the tressletrees, through the fork of the topmast-stays, before all, on deck, the side of the lower stay the mast is, through the lizard, through the sheave in the heel of the mast ; send the end aloft, and hitch it to the foremost eye-bolt in the topmast-cap, and seize the end back. Secure the lizard with two good half-hitches through the royal sheave-hole, or a hole made for that purpose, about 18-ins. below it, askant through the mast ; great care should be observed in securing the lizard well to prevent accidents.

To Reeve a Boom-Brace.

Reeve the end through the outer sheave of the double block secured by a tail to the foremost shroud of the main rigging, about 10 ft. or 15 ft. above the netting, from aft forward, or through one of the sheaves in the ship's side before the gangway; splice an eye in the end, and place it over the boom-end, inside the topping lift.

Boom-Jigger

Is fitted with two single blocks ; it is used for rigging the boom in or out, or tricing it up ; when used in rigging the boom in or out, the hauling part of the fall is rove through a leading block fast to the bunt of the yard on the after side.

To rig the boom out, the upper block is hooked to a strop round the standing part of the lower lift.

To rig the boom in, the upper block is hooked to a strop to the slings of the yard.

To trice the boom up, the upper block is hooked to a strop under the top, and secured by a toggle above.

Heel-Lashings.

The short one is spliced into the eye-bolt in the inner end of the boom, and secured round the jackstay, so as to prevent the boom moving.

The long heel-lashing is rove through a hole about 1-ft. or 18-ins. from the heel of the boom, an eye is spliced in the outer end, and finished off by forming a wall or stopper-knot, so as to prevent the eye from being drawn through the hole in the boom. This lashing is used to secure the heel of the boom, when it is in use for setting lower or topmast-studsails ; it is passed round the quarter-iron through the eye spliced in the other end of it, two or three times, to keep the boom from running in, then two or three frapping turns round the heel of the boom and jackstay, so as to keep it from rising.

TOPGALLANT STUDSAIL-BOOM

To Reeve a Tricing-Line

Take the end up out of the top, up inside the topmast rigging, through a single block seized to the foremast shroud of the topmast rigging, above the sister-block, from in out, pay the end down, and splice it in the eye-bolt in the heel of the boom.

To Reeve a Boom-Back

A boom-back is simply a short tricing-line, it is rove through a thimble seized to the foremost shroud of the topmast rigging, high enough to trice the boom up when reefing, furling, or shifting topsails ; the end is then spliced in the same eye-bolt as the tricing-line ; it is of great use in steadying the boom for the yard-arm men laying in or out.

Heel-Lashing

The standing part is spliced in the same eye-bolt as the tricing-line in the heel of the boom ; when the boom is rigged out for setting studsails, it is rove through the quarter-strop, and through the strop on the heel of the boom, two or three times, to keep the boom from running in, with two or three frapping turns round the jackstay and boom, to keep the heel down. When the boom is rigged in, it hangs down before the topsail, when the sails are furled it is passed round the topsoil and the heel of the boom, to keep the boom snugly down in place. There is a strop and toggle fitted to the eye-bolt in the heel of the boom, and another strop fitted to the jackstay, which goes over the toggle to keep the heel of the boom in place when the sails are set.

SPRITSAIL-GAFF

To Reeve a Spritsail-Gaff Brace

Splice one eye in one end, serve it and place it over the gaff-end, reeve the other end through a block, at the eyes of the fore-rigging, from forward aft, and set the end up in the fore chains.

NOTE.-Its use is now abolished in the service.

To Reeve a Spritsail-Gaff Lift.

Splice an eye in one end, serve it and place it over the gaff end, reeve the other end through a clump-block stropped to the upper eye-bolt in the bowsprit-cap, from out in, splice a thimble in the end, and set it up to an eye-bolt at the knight-heads.

Jaw-Ropes

Are rove through holes in the jaws of the gaff, and secured round the bowsprit, in a similar way to the jaw-ropes of a boom or gaff round a mast.

A Martingale Jaw-Rope

Is rove through holes in the bees of the bowsprit, and knotted on top ; an iron martingale or dolphin-striker has no jaws, it is shackled under the bowsprit.

To Reeve a Jib-Boom Heel-Rope.

To reeve the heel-rope. Reeve the end out through the block hooked to the bowsprit-cap, from out in, in through the sheave in the jib-boom end, take the end out and make it fast to the eye-bolt in the after-part of the bowsprit-cap with a half-hitch, and seize the end back on the opposite side to the block.

Q. How do you reeve a flying jib-boom heel-rope ?

A. To reeve a heel-rope. Reeve the end out through a tail-block secured to the jib-boom iron, on the starboard-side, from out in, in through the sheave in the flying jib-boom end, from starboard to port, take the end out, and make it fast round the jib-boom iron, on the port side, with a half-hitch, and seize the end back.

In small vessels the flying jib-boom heel-rope is single, the end being secured at the end of the boom, by being rove through a hole made for this purpose, and knotted.

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