Contents
 
Boy's Manual of Seamanship and Gunnery

Sails and How Fitted

Courses

Are fitted with two reef bands composed of a single part of canvas, one-third the width of the canvas in breadth, each placed at one-sixth the depth of the sail from the head. A belly band, also single part of canvas, half the width of the canvas in breadth, is placed half way between the lower reef and foot ; and a foot band, extending from clew to clew, also a single part of canvas half the width of the canvas in breadth.

The leeches are lined from clew to earring with whole breadth, and the buntline patches, four in number, are placed at equal distances apart along the foot, extending from foot to middle or belly band.

Holes are worked two in a cloth in the head and reefs, and also for sticking the cringles in the leeches, at the foot in each centre of the buntline patches, and at the clews for the seizings.

Marline holes are worked along the foot, and the foot and clew ropes wormed, &c., similar to topsails.

The largest ropes are the clew ropes, which are spliced with the foot rope, about a foot or 18 ins, outside the outer buntline patches, and with the leech ropes a short distance from the clew, the foot and leech ropes being of one size. The ends of the head rope are spliced into the earrings of the leech ropes. A metal thimble is placed in each buntline, similar to topsails, and iron thimbles in the cringles in the leeches

except the bowline cringles, which are three in number in main courses, and two in fore courses. Courses and topsails are seized at each clew with 1 in. or in. bolt rope, according to the size of the sail.

Topsails

Are tabled all round the edges, and have four reef bands, of half breadth (24 in. canvas), doubled, the lower close reef being generally at half the depth of the sail, and the others at nearly equal distances apart, between that and the head. A middle or belly band, of half breadth, single, half way between the lower reef and the foot, and a foot band also, of half breadth, single, extending from the top lining, on each side, to the clew. The width of the top lining is usually about one-fifth the length of the foot, and the depth from foot to middle band, with a mast lining of about two cloths, extending from the upper part of the top lining to the third reef.

The leeches are lined from clew to earring, the lining being half-cloth wide at the head, and one-and-a-half cloths wide at the foot.

The reef-tackle patches in large sails are of whole breadth, and in small sails, two-thirds wide at the outer part and one-third wide at the inner part ; they are from two to three yards long, and placed diagonally to the opposite clew. The centre of the buntline cloths, which are of whole breadth, is placed at one-third the length of the foot from the clew, and the inner edge of the upper part of the buntline cloths brought to the outer edge of the top lining at the middle band.

Holes are worked two and one in a cloth alternately, in the head and two upper reefs, and two in a cloth in the other two reefs ; holes are also worked in the leech of the sail, for sticking the reef and bowline cringles in, also in the centre of the lower part of the buntlines, and at the clews, for the seizings. Marline holes are worked along the foot and a short distance up the leeches, for the purpose of lacing the foot of the sail with white line to the foot rope, which is first wormed, tarred, parcelled with canvas, and served with spunyarn.

Topsails have head, foot, and leech ropes ; the ends of the head rope are spliced into the earring of the leech ropes, and the foot rope carried round the clews of the sail and spliced with the leech ropes, from 3 ft. to 6 ft. from the clew, according to the size of the sail. Thimbles, made of mixed metal, are placed in the buntline holes, and iron thimbles in the clews and in the reef and reef-tackle cringles.

Topsails are fitted with four, three, or two bowline cringles, according to the depth of the sail.

Topgallant Sails.

Two holes are worked in each cloth in the head, each corner of the sail is lined, and two or three bowline cringles, according to the depth of the sail, are worked in the leech ropes.

The ropes are generally of three different sizes, the head rope extending from earring to earring, the leech ropes, from the head earring, to between the second and third bowline cringles, when fitted with three, and between the two bowline cringles, when fitted with two, and the foot rope through the foot and up the leeches, splicing with each leech rope. The upper bowline is placed at half the depth of the sail, and the others at equal distances between it and the clew. The clews are served with spunyarn and marled with small line, one foot each way.

Royals.

Two holes are worked in each cloth in the head, and corner pieces fitted, same as topgallantsails. The ropes are of two sizes only - viz., head rope, from earring to earring,

and a body rope on the foot and leeches. No thimbles are used in either these sails, or topgallantsails.

Boom, Mainsails, Spankers, &c.

These sails are lined with a clew piece of whole breadth, from the clew to about four or five feet above the upper reef cringle ; a peak piece, also of whole breadth, from the peak to about four or five feet down the leech, according to the size of the sails, a mast lining one foot wide, from throat to tack ; also a piece about one foot wide, under the clew piece, extending from about 1 ft. 6 in. above the upper reef to the clew ; the corners, and clew as peak are likewise strengthened by small patches, called clinker pieces.

Head holes are worked, two per cloth, in sails made of canvas 24 ins. wide, and two and one alternately in sails made of canvas 18 ins. in width, and two holes at each corner, and two at each reef, in both leech and luff, for sticking the cringles ; also holes in the luff of the sail, about three-quarters of a yard apart, for seizing it to the mast hoops.

The reefs are usually three in number, the upper one being placed about midway between the throat and tack, the others at equal distances between the upper one and the tack. Small sails are only fitted, with two reefs. Reef points, made of stoat white line, re crowfooted in the middle, a hole is then made through every seam, and one end of the point passed through, and the crowfoot securely sewn to the sail.

The largest rope on these sails is the clew rope, which extends from the upper part of the clew piece, where it is spliced with the leech rope, round the clew, and about 3 ft. into the foot, then spliced with the foot rope, which, in

its turn, is spliced with the mist or luff rope, about 2 ft. from the tack in the foot of the sail, the mast or luff rope is then carried round the tack, up the luff, and about 2 ft. into the head ; it is then spliced with the head rope ; the head rope terminates about 2 ft. from the peak, where the peak rope is spliced on, which is spliced with the leech rope about 4 ft. or 5 ft. below the head.

Cringles, with iron thimbles, are stuck at each corner, at each reef, both in leech, and luff, and likewise midway between the lower reef and tack.

Jibs

The edges are turned over and tabled or hemmed down, to make the sail strong enough to bear the strain of the holes and roping stiches ; the width of the tabling varying

according to the size of the sail. Lining, head, clew, and tack pieces, as a, b, c (see sketch). Holes, 3 ft. apart, are worked (grommets) in the stay, for the lacing.

Roping.

The largest size rope is sewn on, commencing at the top of the clew piece, and continued through the foot to about 3 ft. or 4 ft. up the stay, where it is spliced into the stay rope, which is sewn on up the stay, continued round the head, and spliced with the leech rope at the lower part of the peak piece, the leech rope being in its turn spliced with the clew rope.

Large sails have eyes formed with the rope, and seized with line at each corner, the clew rope being served and marled 2 ft. each side of the clew.

In small sails, two holes are worked at the clew and a cringle stuck in.

Staysails (Lower)

Are lined as follows:- A clew piece about two yarns long, and peak and tack pieces about one yard long, a foot band of one-third breadth, and two bands also of one-third breadth,

sewn across the sail at equal distances between the head and clew. Holes for the stay lacing or hanks are worked three-quarters of a yard apart in the stay of the sail, and they are roped similar to jibs.

Staysails, topgallant, and royal are similar in every respect to jibs.

Trysails (Storm)

Are fitted similar to other gaff sails, with the addition of having reef bands of one-quarter breadth and strengthening bands of one-third breadth, the former to take the reef hanks, and the latter at equal distances between the upper reef and the throat of the sail, with the exception of having cringles stuck in the mast or luff rope about 3 ins. apart, for lacing, instead of the grommets worked in the sail to seize it to the

mast-hoops, and are fitted with two reefs only, each about one-sixth the depth of the mast. In small sails, one reef about one-fifth the depth of the mast.

Lower and Topmast Studdingsails

These sails are lined at each corner similar to topgallantsails, and have a reef band of one-quarter breadth at one-eighth the depth of the sail, from the head.

Two holes are worked in each cloth, in both head and reef,

and are robed as follows:- The largest or body rope, down one leech through the foot, and up the other leech, commencing and finishing with an earring ; and the head rope, the ends of which are spliced into the earring of the body rope.

Topmast Studdingsails

A cringle is stuck and an iron thimble inserted, in each leech, at the extremity of the reef baud.

Are similar to the lower and topmast studdingsails, with the exception of not being fitted with a reef.

NOTE.-The lower studdingsail is on a smaller scale than the other sails.

Main Course, Topsail, Topgallantsail, and Royal

MAIN COURSE:

  1. Head.
  2. Earring Cringles.
  3. Bending Cringles.
  4. Reef Cringles.
  5. First Reef Band.
  6. Second Reef Band.
  7. Outer Leech Line Toggles.
  8. Bowline Cringles.
  9. Middle or Belly Band.
  10. Buntline Linings.
  11. Foot Band.
  12. Clews.
  13. Reef Tackle Cringles.

TOPSAIL:

  1. Head.
  2. Earring Cringles.
  3. Reef Cringles.
  4. Reef Tackle Cringles.
  5. First Reef Band.
  6. Second Reef Band.
  7. Third Reef Band.
  8. Fourth Reef Band.
  9. Reef Tackle Patch.
  10. Bowline Cringles.
  11. Mast Lining.
  12. Top Lining.
  13. Bunt line Patch.
  14. Foot.
  15. Clews.

TOPGALLANTSAIL:

  1. Head.
  2. Earring Cringles.
  3. Bowline Cringles.
  4. Foot.
  5. Clews.

ROYAL:

  1. Head.
  2. Earring Cringles.
  3. Leech.
  4. Foot.
  5. Clews.

NUMBER OF SAILS ISSUED TO SHIPS

The Establishment or Number of Sails Issued to Ships for Sea Service is as follows :-

DENOMINATION OF SAILS. 2 and 3 deck ships and frigates Corvettes, sloops, and all vessels ship -rigged Hector Class Barque rigged Troop ships - barque rigged Schooner-rigged Sloops and Gun Boats

1st and 2nd Class

3rd Class

4th Class

Second jibs or inner

1

1

-

2

2

2

1

Jibs or outer

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

Flying jibs

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

Fore courses or squaresails

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

Fore topsails

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

Fore topgallantsails

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

Fore royal

1

1

1

1

-

1

-

Fore trysail

-

1

-

1

1

1

1

Fore gaffsail

1

1

2

1

2

2

2

Main course or squaresail

2

2

2

1

1

1

-

Main topsails

2

2

2

2

1

1

-

Main topgallantsails

2

2

2

2

1

1

-

Main royals

1

1

1

1

-

1

-

Main trysail

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Main gaffsail

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Main gaff topsail

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

Mizen course

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

Mizen topsails

2

2

-

-

-

-

-

Mizen topgallantsails

2

2

-

-

-

-

-

Mizen royal

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

Mizen trysail

1

1

1

1

-

-

-

Spanker

2

2

2

2

1

1

I

Gaff topsail .

-

-

1

1

1

1

1

Staysails - Fore

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

Staysails - Fore top

2

2

2

2

-

-

-

Staysails - Main

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

Fore

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

Studding sails - Fore top (large)

1

2

2

2

2

2

1

Studding sails - Fore top (small)

1

2

2

2

2

2

1

Studding sails - Fore topgallant

2

2

2

2

-

-

-

Studding sails - Main topgallant

2

2

2

2

-

-

-

 

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