|Boy's Manual of Seamanship and Gunnery|
Describe the use of the following knots, bends, and hitches, and the mode of making them : To knot yarns; Reef-knot; Bowline knot; Bowline on a bight; Running bowline; Clove-hitch; Timber-hitch; Blackwall-hitch; Two half-hitches; Rolling-hitch; Sheet bend; Bending studdingsail halyard; Cat's-paw; Sheep shank; Carrick bend; Bend hawsers; Sling a cask; Inside clench;
Outside clench; Clap on jiggers and stoppers; To use a parbuckle.
Q. How do you knot yarns?
A. Take the ends of two yarns, split them in halves about 2 ins, down, marry them together and form a reef-knot, with the opposite ends as nearly as you can ; yarns are knotted for the use of the rope-maker, for making spunyarn, nettlestuff, or any small rope.
Q. How do you make a reef-knot, and what is its use ?
A. It is used for reefing sails, fitted with reef points, such as trysails, spankers, and boat sails. First make an overhanded knot round the foot of the sail, then bring the end which is next to you over the left hand and through the bight ; haul both ends taut, and it is made.
Q. What use is a bowline knot, and how is it made ?
A. A bowline knot is used for sending a man aloft, or one down from aloft, for riding down stays, backstays, making of pair of slings, and many other purposes. Take the end of your rope in your right hand, and the standing part in your left, lay the end over the standing part, then with your left hand turn the bight of the standing part over the end part, so as to form a cuckold's neck on the standing part ; then lead the end through the standing part above, and stick it down through the cuckold's neck, and so the knot is completed.
Q. What use is a bowline on the bight, and how is it made ?
A. A bowline on the bight is used when both ends are occupied, or to send a man down from aloft when he is hurt, as it is much easier to sit in.
To make the Knot.
With the bight of a rope in your right hand, and the standing part in your left, throw a cuckold's neck over the bight with the standing parts, then haul enough of the bight up through the cuckold's neck to go under and overall part, haul all taut, and the knot is completed.
Q. What is a running bowline used for, and how is it made ?
A. It is used for throwing over anything out of reach, or anything under water.
How to make the Knot.
You take the end of the rope round the standing part, through the bight, and make a single bowline upon the running part.
Q. What is a clove-hitch used for, and how is it made ?
A. It is used for rattling down the rigging. It is made by passing the end of a rope round another rope or spar, over, and bringing it under and round behind its standing part, over the rope or spar again, and up through its own part. It can be stopped or hitched to its own part as required, the only difference between two half-hitches and a clove-hitch is, one is hitched round its own standing part, and the other is hitched round a spar or another rope.
Q. What is a timber-hitch used for, and how is it made ?
A. For securing the end of a rope to a spar : in towing a spar, always use a half-hitch in addition to a timber-hitch.
To make the Knot.
Take the end of a rope round a spar, pass it under and over the standing part, then pass three turns round its own part, and haul it taut.
Q. What is a Blackwall hitch used for, and how is it made ?
A. For hooking a tackle to a rope, such as setting up lower rigging instead of a cat's-paw, where the end of the lanyard is not long enough to form a cat's-paw, but a strop and toggle is preferable.
To make the Hitch.
You form a bight or a kink, with the end of the lanyard, keeping the end part underneath, and the standing part on the top, put the hook through the bight, taking care to keep the bight well up on the back of the book, until there is a strain on the tackle.
Q. What are two half-hitches used for, and how are they made?
A. Making the end of a rope fast, such as a boat's painter. You make the knot by passing the end of your rope round the standing part, and bringing it up through the bight, which is one half-hitch ; repeat it, and the knot is completed.
Q. What is a rolling-hitch used for, and how is it made ?
A. Bending a small rope to a large one, putting a tail jigger on a backstay. Make the hitch by taking a half-hitch round the standing part with the end of a rope, and another through the same bight, hauling it well taut in place above the first hitch and the upper part of the bight, and dog the end above the hitch round the standing part, and stop, it back with spunyarn or a ropeyarn.
Q. What is the use of a sheet bend, and how is it made?
Making a rope's-end fast to anything, such as a becket of a swab or block.
How to make the Bend.
Pass the end of a rope through the bight of another rope, or through the becket of a block, or a clew of a sail ; then round both parts of the bight or becket, and take the end under its own part;
it is sometimes put under twice, and the end stopped back to the standing part ; also for bending topgallant and royal clewlines, jib and staysail down-hauls.
Q. What is the use of a studdingsail halyard-bend, and how is it made?
A. It is used in bending studdingsail, topgallant, and royal halyards; it allows the yards to go closer to the blocks of sheaves than any other bend.
To make the Bend.
Take two round turns round the yard, pass the end from right to left under both turns, then from left to right over one, and under the other turn.
Q. What is a cat's-paw used for, and how is it made?
A. It is used for setting up lower rigging. To form it, you first lay the end part of the lanyard across the standing part, which will form a bight ; then lay hold of the bight with one hand on each side of it, breaking it down and turning it over from you two or three times ; clap both bights together and hook on to both parts. A boatswain's toggle and strop should always be used in preference to a cat's-paw, as it is almost certain to burst the enter yarns of the lanyard.
Q. What is the use of a sheep-shank, and how is it made ?
A. For shortening in a rope, which requires to be lengthened again, such as topgallant and royal backstays, the rope is doubled in three parts, and a hitch taken over each bight with the standing part of the backstays, and hauled taut.
A Carrick Bend
To Bend two Hawsers with a Carrick Bend.
Take the end of a hawser and lay it across the top of standing part forming a bight, reeve the end of the second hawser down through the bight thus formed, up and over the cross, and down through the bight again on the opposite side, from the other end ; one end will then be on top, and the other underneath, one each side of the standing part ; if both ends come out on top, it will form a granny's knot.
To Bend two Hawsers with Two Bowline Knots.
Form a bowline knot in the end of the first hawser, dip the end of the second hawser through the bight of the first bowline knot, haul sufficient end through, and form a bowline knot with the second hawser, leaving a bight to each bowline at least a fathom long.
To Bend two Hawsers with two Half-Hitches and seizing the ends back.
Make a half-hitch in the end of the first hawser, leaving a bight at least a fathom long, reeve the end of the second hawser through the bight of the first hawser, haul end enough through on both hawsers to have at least four feet end, put a seizing on about two feet from the half-hitch, on each hawser, and stop the ends to the standing part.
Q. How do you sling a cask ?
A. There are several methods of slinging a cask, either with a pair of butt slings, bale slings, or a bowline knot. A cask should always be slung, bung up, or on its head ; should one of the heads be defective or out, a bowline knot is used for this ; it is very useful, for the instruction of boys, to have small miniature casks slung in the different ways, and hung up in a conspicuous part of the ship, set apart for seamanship instruction.
Q. What is the use of an inside clinch, and how is it made ?
A. For securing the standing part of a reef tackle round the goose-neck or any other rope that you wish to jamb.
To make the Clinch.
Take the end over and under its own part, and inside, put two seizings on opposite each other, they are called the throat and quarter seizings ; exactly the same as are used for turning-in lower rigging.
Q. What is the use of an outside clinch, and how is it made ?
A. For securing the standing part of a rope topsail sheet, or any rope you wish to let go smartly.
To make the Clinch.
Take the end over and under its own part and outside, put the two seizings on exactly the same as for inside clinch.
Q. How do you put a jigger on a backstay ?
A. With a rolling hitch.
Q. How do you pass a stopper ?
A. By taking a half-hitch round and against the lay of the rope, and lashing the end of the stopper in the lay.
To make the Knot.- Pass the end of a rope over the standing part and through the bight. It is used for the end of running rigging, or any rope rove through a block or sheave to prevent it unreeving
Figure Of Eight Knot
To make the Knot.- Pass the end of a rope over and round the standing part, up over its own part, and down through the bight. It is used for the end of running rigging, or any rope rove through a block or sheave to prevent it unreeving.
So called, by many persons, is simply a rolling-hitch, made by two round turns round a spar, and two half-hitches round the standing part.
A Fisherman's Bend.
Take two round turns with the end of a rope round a spar, or through the ring of an anchor, take one half-hitch round
the standing parts, and under all parts of the turns, then on half-hitch round the standing parts above all, stop the end to the standing part, instead of taking the last half-hitch, tuck the end under one of the round turns, and it becomes a studding-sail halyard bend.
A Common Marline Hitch, used for Lashing Hammocks up.
An eye is spliced in one end, the other end is passed round the head of the hammocks, and rove through the eye, and hauled taut, this forms the standing part of the lashing which is brought along the hammock, the other part being passed over and under at regular intervals, hauling each turn well taut, after passing the last turn the end is tucked under it, and the bight of the remaining part expended up the standing part of the lashing and under the two last turns. Seven turns are the correct number to take in lashing a hammock up, leaving an equal distance between each turn.
A marline hitch is used for many other purposes, such as seizing the double part of the strop together of the fish-block that goes over the fish davit head, also for securing the foot of a course or a topsail to the foot rope, and for marling down the strands of a splice before serving over it.
Hitching over a Ring-Bolt.
All the ring-bolts for breechings, in fact, all ring-bolts not used for hooking tackles to, are generally hitched over for neatness. It can be done with one, two, or three ends.
A Marline-Spike Hitch (also called a Midshipman's or
Admiralty Hitch) *
Is made by placing the marline-spike upon top of the end of the seizing you are going to heave taut, the end part is then brought over the marline-spike, forming a round turn; the marline-spike is then brought back under the standing part of the seizing, and up between it, and the other part of the round turn thus formed ; the greater strain you bring on the seizing, the more the end jambs and prevents it from slipping.
If used for the hook of a tackle, the hook is passed down between the round turns.
* Used for heaving the turns of a Seizing taut with a marline-spike or hooking the hook of a tackle to any rope where a smart pull is required; it is preferable to a cat's-paw, as it never jambs.
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