|Boy's Manual of Seamanship and Gunnery|
Snider Rifle Drill
Parts IV and V of the Musketry Instruction Book for the Army are to be used for the instruction of the seamen of the Fleet.
When circumstances permit, the instruction of men who have not previously gone through the course will be as laid clown in the table, Part II, and that for men who have done so will be carried on as in Part III.
If, however, it should not be found possible to devote the necessary time to enable the above course to be carried out, then the following substitution is to be made :
For men who have not previously been instructed, the course will occupy seven working days ; four days to be devoted to the preliminary drills, and three days to the practice.
The men to be put through by parties of not more than 40 in number.
A.M. 1 lesson cleaning arms, 2 position drills (1st practice), 1 lecture (when practicable). P.M. 1 aiming drill, 2 position drills (1st practice).
A.M. 1 lesson cleaning arms, 2 position drills (1st practice), 1 lecture. P.M. 1 aiming drill, 2 position drills (1st practice).
A.M. 1 lesson cleaning arms, 2 position drills (2nd practice), 1 lecture. P.M. 1 aiming drill, 2 position drills (2nd practice).
A.M. 1 lesson cleaning arms, 2 position drills (3rd practice), 1 lecture. P.M. 1 aiming drill, 2 position drills (3rd practice).
Each lesson, lecture, or drill to last half an hour. The position drills are not to follow one another ; half of them are to he carried on standing and half kneeling.
Blank firing (10 rounds). Preliminary ball firing, 10 rounds at 100 yards (standing).
A.M. 10 rounds at 200 yards (standing). P.M. 10 rounds at 300 yards (kneeling).
10 rounds at 400 yards (kneeling).
For men who have been instructed before, the course will occupy five working days; two days' preliminary drill, and three days' practice.
A.M. 2 position drills (1st practice), 1 aiming drill. P.M. 2 position drills (1st practice), 1 aiming drill.
A.M. 2 position drills (2nd and 3rd practices), 1 aiming drill. P.M. 2 position drills (2nd and 3rd practices), 1 aiming drill.
Each drill to last half an hour. The position drills are not rot to follow one another.
The same as laid down above, omitting the blank firing.
Q. What is the seaman taught in aiming drill'?
A. To aim and to adjust the back-sight of the rifle.
Q. How is his progress tested?
A. By making him aim at different distances from a rest.
Q. What do you require to enable you to proceed with aiming drill?
A. If traversing rests are not available, a tripod formed of three stakes tied or looped near the top, or piled arms with swords fixed (sheathed), supporting a bag of sand abort 41 feet from the ground, will answer the purpose, and a target.
Q. What should the instructor first proceed to explain.
A. The principles of aligning the sights on an object, and the rules for aiming drill.
Q. How many rules are there for aiming drill?
Q. What is the first ?
A. To see that the sights do not incline to the right or left.
Q. What is the second ?
A. That the line of sight should be taken along the centre of the notch of the back-sight and the top of the fore-sight, which should cover the middle of the mark aimed at.
Q. What is the third ?
A. That the eye should be fixed steadfastly on the mark to be aimed at, and not on the barrel or fore-sight, which latter will be easily brought into the alignment if the eye be fixed as directed.
NOTE.-Particular attention is to be paid to this rule, for beginners arc apt to fix the eye on the fore-sight instead of the mark ; in which case the latter can never be distinctly seen, and the difficulty is greatly increased.
Q. What is the fourth ?
A. That in aiming the left eye should be closed.
NOTE If a seaman be not able to do this at the outset, he will soon succeed by tying a handkerchief over the left eye.
Q. What should the instructor next proceed to explain?
A. The difference between fine, full, and half-sight in aiming.
Q. What do you understand by a fine-sight ?
A. When the line of sight is taken along the bottom of the notch of the back-sight, the fine point of the fore-sight being brought up into the alignment ; as A, fig. 1.
Q. What do you understand by a full-sight ?
A. When the line of sight is taken even with the shoulders of the back-sight, the point of the fore-sight being brought up into the alignment ; as B, fig. 2:
Q. What do you. understand by a half-sight ?
A. When the line of sight is taken halfway up the notch of the back-sight, the point of the fore-sight being brought up into the alignment ; as C, fig. 3.
NOTE.-The ordinary rules for aiming are intended to apply to the half sight. As full-sight and fine-sight cause a slight difference in the angle of elevation, the full-sight is to be used when the rifle is found to carry low, the fine when it carries high.
Q. After the foregoing rules have been clearly explained, what is the next thing done ?
A. The instructor will cause one of the class to align his rifle with the sight for 100 yards, on a mark that distance from him ; having done so he will leave his rifle on the rest and step aside, in order that the instructor may look along the sights to see if the aim is correctly taken.
Q. Should the instructor discover any error in the aim, does he correct it ?
A. No ; he will call another of the class to look along the sights and state the defects ; when the instructor will explain what the consequence would be if actually firing at an object, and cause the same person to aim again.
Q. Why does he (the instructor) not correct the error himself ?
A. Because this method will have the effect of fixing the attention of the seaman, and of inducing him to avoid, when aiming himself, the errors he may have witnessed in his comrade's aim.
The foregoing process is to be carried out, at every distance of 50 yards, from 100 to 900 yards, or to the extent the rifle is sighted, at bull's-eyes, six inches square for all distances to 300 yards inclusive, and 18 inches square for all distances beyond 300 yards, in order that the seaman may acquire a knowledge of his sights, and become expert in aiming; for it must be borne in mind that the difficulty of aligning the foresight accurately increases with the distance. The instructor is thus enabled to ascertain the progress of the seaman, and if he has any defect in his eyesight.
Aiming strengthens the vision of the eye ; and it cannot be too strongly impressed on the seaman's mind, that to shoot well at long ranges he must train and strengthen his eye by looking at small objects at distances beyond those at which he will have to fire in practice.
It will be well to remember, that if the sights of the rifle are inclined to the right, the shot will go to the right, and short, and vice versâ.
THE PLATOON EXERCISE FOR THE SHORT SNIDER BREECH
The seamen, having acquired a thorough knowledge of the several motions of the rifle as detailed in the Manual Exercise, a next be taught the Platoon Exercise. The squad to fall in at " the order. " The muzzle stoppers to be removed.
The seamen will be instructed:
Firstly. To load and fire standing.
Secondly. To fire and load kneeling.
Each of these exercises will be taught :
Firstly. By numbers.
Secondly. In quick time.
Squads are not to be instructed in the Platoon Exercise by either standing or kneeling, otherwise than in single rank.
To Load and Fire Standing, by Numbers.
CAUTION:- Exercise, by numbers, as a front (or rear) rank.
1 Ready:- Turn on both heels to the half-right turn, carrying rifle round with the body. The right foot to point to right, the left to the front, eyes to look to the front.
Two. Advance the left foot, moving the body with it, 10 in. to the left front (viz., six to the front, and eight to the left), toes to point to the front ; at the same time, bring the rifle to a horizontal position at the right side, with the small of the butt just in front of the right hip, grasping the stock with the left hand between the lower band and the projection in front of the lock plate, thumb between stock and barrel, and half-cock with the thumb of the right hand, fingers behind the trigger-guard. The left elbow to be kept close to the body as a support for the rifle, the right hand to hold the small of the butt lightly, with the elbow to the rear, thumb resting on the comb of the hammer. As a rear rank, the left foot to be advanced six inches, the body moving with it, and the butt to be four inches above the hip.
Three. Open the breech by a sharp turn of the right land from left to right, then carry the hand to the pouch and take hold of a cartridge at the rim with the forefinger and thumb.
Put the cartridge into the barrel, pressing it well home with the thumb, and close the breech firmly by canting the breech-block to the left with the fingers ; then carry the hand to the small of the butt, and hold it lightly with the fingers behind the trigger-guard, thumb pointing to the muzzle
NOTE. To open the breech, place the thumb on the thumb-piece of breech-block, and the forefinger along the nipple-lump, the remaining fingers to be closed in the hand.
When the feet are at right angles, as detailed in the second motion, care must be taken not to increase the angle by turning the toes of the right foot to the rear, which would tend to alter the proper position of the right shoulder in firing.
Four. Adjust the back-sight ; full-cock with the thumb of the right hand, fingers behind the trigger-guard ; and fix the eyes steadfastly on some object in front. Thumb to point to the muzzle after cocking.
The back-sight will be adjusted as follows : With the forefinger and thumb of the right hand move the sliding bar until the top is even with the line, or at the place on the flanges showing the distance named ; then, if necessary, raise the flap carefully, preventing it from springing up with a jerk, and afterwards carry the hand back to the small of the butt.
Present. Bring the rifle smartly to the shoulder, pointing the muzzle a few inches below the object on which the right eye is fixed, and place the forefinger round the trigger like a hook, but without pressing it, that part between the first and second joint to rest on it.
The centre of the butt to be pressed firmly to the shoulder with the left hand ; the top of the butt to be even with the top of the shoulder ; the left elbow to be under the rifle as a support ; the right elbow to be raised nearly square with (but not too high), and well in front of, the right shoulder, to form a bed for the butt ; the right hand to hold the small of the butt lightly, thumb pointing to the muzzle ; the left eye to be closed. This motion is to be performed without moving the left hand from its grasp, or bending the body, or raising the heels.
Two. Raise the muzzle steadily, until the top of the fore-sight is brought in a line with the object through the notch of the back-sight, pressing the trigger at the same time without the least motion of the hand, eye, or arm, until the hammer falls, still keeping the eye fixed on the object.
Three. Bring the rifle to a horizontal position at the right side ; shut down the flap of the back-sight, if raised, without moving the sliding bar ; half-cock ; open the breech ; and, holding the breech-block firmly with the forefinger and thumb, by means of the thumb-piece and nipple-lump, draw it back as far as possible by a jerk, raising the muzzle of the rifle slightly in doing so, to remove the empty cartridge case ; at the same time cant the rifle sharply over to the right to allow the case to fall out, bringing it again to the horizontal position, close the breech, then carry the right hand to the small of the butt, as in the " Ready" position.
As the first motion of the " Present " will not be learned without practice and much care, the instructor will frequently give the command, " As you were," when the seaman will bring the rifle to the right side without moving any part of his body but his arms, or his eyes from the object to be aimed at. The instructor will then point out the defects observed. By this means the seaman will soon be accustomed to get into the position readily, and will acquire a full command of his rifle with the left hand.
The squad will also be brought back to the " Ready," by the command, " As you were," after the first and second motions of the "Present," For the instructor to explain that which follows next in order ; the seamen maintaining the erect position of the body, and keeping the eyes fixed on the object they are to aim at.
Particular attention is to be given to the following points in the " Present " The body is to be firm and upright ; the butt to be pressed firmly into the hollow of the shoulder, so as to avoid the kick which will otherwise take place from the recoil on the explosion of the powder ; the rifle to rest solidly on the left hand, and to be firmly grasped, but without rigidity of muscle; the back-sight to be upright. In aiming and pressing the trigger, the breathing to be restrained. The right eye to continue fixed on the object after snapping, to ascertain if the aim has been deranged by the movement of the trigger or body. The position of the head with reference to the butt, when taking aim, must depend entirely on the elevation used. With small elevation the butt must be brought to the head by raising the shoulder, or the cheek must be so placed on the butt by bending the head a little forward (not sideways), as to get the eye fixed on the object through the notch of the back-sight ; as the distances increase the head must be raised or the shoulder lowered.
When giving the command "Ready," some distance should always be named ; if, however, the distance be omitted, the seaman must judge it for himself, and adjust his sight accordingly.
Too much pains cannot be taken to insure that the seaman takes a deliberate aim at some object whenever he brings the rifle to the " Present ;" for this purpose small bull's-eyes are to be marked.
2. To "Shoulder" or "Order" Arms by Numbers, from the
Position of " Ready" Standing.
By Numbers, Shoulder-Arms. On the word " Arms," turn on the right heel to the front ; at the same time bring the left foot back to the right, and raise the rifle to a perpendicular position at the right side with the left hand, seizing it with the forefinger and thumb of the right hand round the trigger-guard, the remaining fingers under the hammer ; the left hand to hold the rifle under the lower band.
Two. Drop the left hand smartly to the side.
On the word " Arms, " turn on the right heel to the front ; at the same time bring the left foot back to the right, and with the right hand, which is to seize the rifle close in front of the left, place the butt quietly on the ground, at the right side, as detailed in the Manual Exercise.
3. To come to the " Ready" Standing by Numbers, from
" The Shoulder '' " Slope," or " The Order."
From " The Shoulder. " By Numbers, As a Front (or Rear) Rank. At - yards. Ready. - Turn on both heels to the half-right turn, and at the same time seize the rifle with the left hand under the lower band, bending the right arm slightly to do so.
To advance the left foot, moving the body with it; at the same time bring the rifle to a horizontal position at the right side, as detailed in the 2nd motion of " Ready" (No. 1) ; adjust the back-sight, full cock, and fix the eyes on some object in front.
From "The Order." By Numbers, As a Front (or Rear) Rank. At - yards. Ready. - Proceed as directed in the 1st motion of the " Ready" (No. 1)
Two. Proceed as directed in the 2nd motion of the " Ready " from " The Shoulder. "
4. To Fire a Volley and Order by Numbers, from the Position
of "Ready" when it is not intended to re-load.
CAUTION.-By Numbers, as a Front (or Rear) Rank, Fire a Volley and Order.
At - yards. Ready. Proceed as detailed in 3rd and 4th motions of " Ready."
Present. Two. As before detailed.
Three. As before detailed ; and after throwing out the empty cartridge-case, shut the breech ; ease springs ; then rest a pause of the slow time, and, taking the time from the right, turn on the right heal to the front, and order at the same time, waiting a pause of slow time before quitting the hand.
5. To make " Ready " Standing by Numbers, from " The
CAUTION. Firing Exercise by Numbers, as a Front (or Rear) Rank standing.
At - yards. Ready. Proceed as directed for the 1st motion of the " Ready " from " The Shoulder " (No. 3).
Two - Three - Four. Proceed as directed in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th motions of the " Ready " from the " Order " (No. 1).
6. To Half-cock Arms if at "The Ready."
Half-cock - Arms. Place the thumb of the right hand on the comb of the hammer, and the forefinger on the trigger, and draw both back until the sear is disengaged from the full bent of the tumbler ; then let the hammer gently down (removing the forefinger from the trigger) on the nipple, and carry the right hand to the small of the butt, fingers behind the trigger-guard, thumb pointing to the muzzle.
7. To Ease Springs when at the Half-cock.
Ease Springs. Place the thumb of the right hand on the comb of the hammer, and the forefinger on the trigger, and draw both back until the sear is disengaged from the half bent of the tumbler ; then let the hammer gently down (removing the forefinger from the trigger), draw it back to the half bent again, shut down the flap of the back-sight if raised, and carry the right hand to the small of the butt, fingers behind the trigger-guard, thumb pointing to the muzzle.
8. To Unload when it is not required to Fire of the Churls.
Unload-Rifles. When at the position of " Load, " open the breech, draw the breech-block back as far as possible by a jerk, raising the muzzle of the rifle slightly in doing so to withdraw the cartridge ; let the breech-block go back, and at the same time cant the rifle sharply over to the right to allow the cartridge to fall into the hand : then shut the breech with the fingers, bringing the rifle again to the horizontal position ; return the cartridge to the pouch, and ease springs
9. To Load and Fire Standing, in Quick Time.
The seaman having been thoroughly instructed in the Platoon Exercise by Numbers standing, will next be taught to perform it in Quick Time by the following words of command, which are to be executed as before detailed, resting a pause of quick time between each motion:
CAUTION. Firing Exercise as a Front (or Rear) Rank.
At - yards. Ready. In four motions.
Present. In three motions.
Shoulder-Arms. In two motions.
Fire a Volley, and Order. At - yards. Ready. In four motions.
Present. In three motions ; and having closed the breech, eased springs, &c., turn to the front and order.
10. To Fire and Loud Kneeling, by Numbers.
The squad having loaded standing, and being at shouldered arms, will be instructed as follows:
CAUTION. Firing Exercise, by Numbers, as a Front (or Rear) Rank kneeling, Fire a Volley.
At - yards. Ready. Proceed as detailed for the 1st motion of the " Ready " from the " Shoulder " (No. 3).
Two. Bring the rifle to a horizontal position at the right side as in the second motion of the " Ready " from the " Order " (No. 1) ; at the same time, sink on the right knee twelve inches to the rear and six to the right of the left heel, and square with the right foot, bringing the weight of the body at once on the right heel, and place the left forearm six inches behind, and nearly square with, the left knee, the butt to rest against the right side ; then proceed with the 3rd and 4th motions of " Ready, " and fix the eyes on some object in front.
The right knee of the rear rank to be twelve inches to the right when on the ground; the left forearm on, and nearly square with, the left knee.
As the length of the leg in very tall men is greater than the breadth of the body, it will be impossible, in close order, to get the knee square with the foot ; in such cases, therefore, the knee is to be inclined to the front, but not beyond the inside of the right foot of the man on the right.
Present. As detailed when firing standing, placing the left elbow at once over the left knee as a support. The body is not to be raised off the heel in bringing the rifle to the shoulder.
Two. As detailed when firing standing.
Three. As detailed when firing standing, bringing the left forearm on the left leg as directed in the 2nd motion of the " Ready" kneeling.
The instructions which follow the " Present" standing are applicable to this position when on the knee.
When required to come to the " Ready " kneeling, from the position of " Load " standing, the left foot will be brought back to the right before sinking on the knee.
11. To Order Arms from the Third Position of the "Present" Kneeling.
Order Arms. On the word " Arms " spring to " Attention, " turning on the left heel to the front, and order as before detailed.
12. To Fire a Volley Kneeling, by Numbers when it is no!
intended to re-load.
CAUTION. By Numbers, as a Front (or Rear) Rank kneeling, Fire a Volley.
At - yards. Ready. Proceed with the 3rd end 4th motion of " Ready," and fix the eyes on some object in front.
Present. Two. As before detailed.
Three. As before detailed; and after throwing out the empty cartridge-case, shut the breech ; ease springs ; then rest a pause of slow time, and, taking the time from tile right, spring to "Attention" to the front, and order at the game time.
13. To Load and Fire Kneeling, in Quick Time.
The seaman having been thoroughly instructed in the motions of firing and loading on the knee by numbers, will next be taught to perform them in quick time by the following words of command, which are to be executed as before detailed, resting a pause of quick time between each motion:
CAUTION: Firing Exercise-As a Front (or Rear) Rank kneeling, Fire a Volley.
At - yards. Ready. In four motions.
Present. In three motions.
Order-Arms. In one motion.
As a Front (or Rear) Rank kneeling, Fire a Volley at - yards. Ready. In four motions.
Present. In three motions, and having closed the breech, eased springs, &c., spring to " Attention " to the front, and order at the same time.
14. Loading and Firing in two Ranks.
When the seaman has learned all the motions of the Platoon Exercise, standing and kneeling in single rank, he will practise them in two ranks ; also the following modes of firing:
1. Volleys, front rank kneeling.
2. Independent firing, both ranks standing.
3. Independent firing, both ranks kneeling.
4. Independent firing, front rank kneeling.
With the short rifle, volley firing is invariably to take place front rank kneeling, that rank sinking on the knee on the word "heady."
15. Independent Firing, Standing or Kneeling.
CAUTION. Both ranks kneeling, Independent Firing.
At - yards. Ready. As before detailed.
Commence-Fire. Each man of the front rank will came to the " Present, " independently of his right or left hand man, and when he returns to the position of " Ready, " his rear rank man will come to the " Present, " and so continue alternately until the " Cease firing " is ordered. The flap of the back-sight, if raised, is not to be put down until after the last round is fired.
It is to be observed that the two men of a file are not to be unloaded at the same time. When the front rank man is at the position of " Ready, " the rear rank man is to come to the " Present," and vice versâ, to keep up a continuous fire.
Cease-Fire. Each file, when it completes it loading, will order arms. Files that may have made ready when this command is given will half-cock their rifles before they order arms.
When firing independently, as before detailed, the commands " Commence fire, " and " Cease fire, " are to be given on the drum or bugle.
NOTE: The officer commanding the company's place is three paces in rear of its centre, except on the march, in which case he will place himself in the best position to superintend,
PREPARING FOR CAVALRY
The seaman, having a thorough knowledge of the different modes of firing in the ranks, will now be formed into four ranks, and practised to receive cavalry, as in square, four deep.
Men armed with the short rifle will commence the practice on the march with trailed arms, and will be taught to fix swords on the command " Halt, " or " Halt, right-about, turn ." The leading company of a column thus armed, if halted, will fix swords on the command " Quick -march " being given to the remaining companies; the men who halt without word of command will fix swords as they halt.
Prepare for Cavalry. On this caution, the second and fourth ranks will take a pace of nine inches to the front, and the first and second ranks will sink at once upon the right knee, as a front and rear rank, but without bringing the weight of the body on the heel, and at the same time place the butts of their rifles on the ground against the inside of their right knees, locks inwards, with the muzzles slanting upwards, so that the point of the sword may be about the height of a horse's nose ; the left hand to grasp the rifle firmly immediately above the lower band, the right hand to hold the small of the butt, the left arm to rest upon the leg about ,six inches from the knee.
Ready. The third and fourth ranks will come to the " Ready " position (the muzzles of their rifles slightly inclined upwards).
Independent Firing Commence. All four ranks will proceed with the independent firing, as before detailed.
Cease-Fire. As before detailed.
NOTE: If the bugle have previously sounded the " Commence Fire," the kneeling ranks at the caution " Prepare for Cavalry, " will make " Ready, " and wait for the order " Commence Fire " from the officer commanding the company.
Kneeling Ranks (or Kneeling Ranks of the ---- face),
Fire a Volley. This caution is to be given should it be deemed necessary to fire a volley.
At - yards. Ready. As before detailed, and bringing the weight of the body on the heel.
Present. As before detailed, and after loading, should there be time, bring the rifle at once to resist cavalry.
Order-Arms. As before directed.
In squares of two deep, the front rank only will kneel to resist cavalry.
NOTE: If considered expedient, the standing and kneeling ranks may fire volleys alternately, time being allowed between the rounds for the smoke to clear away.
REVIEW EXERCISE WITH THE SHORT RIFLE.
Words of Command.
CAUTION:- Manual Exercise.
- Present arms.
- Shoulder arms.
- Support arms.
- Shoulder arms.
- Order arms.
- Fix swords.
- Shoulder arms
- Port arms,
- Charge swords.
- Shoulder arms.
- Slope arms.
- Shoulder arms.
- Order arms.
- Unfix swords.
CAUTION: - Firing Exercise.
Fire two Volleys at 300 yards.
Stand at ease.
TO FIRE A FEU DE JOIE.
For this mode of firing the men will be drawn up in line at, open order, with shouldered arms, and unfixed swords.
With Blank Cartridge. Ready. - Muzzles of rifles to slant upwards when loading.
Present. Rifles to be elevated at an angle of 45°.
The right-hand man of the front rank commences the fire, which will run down the front and up the rear as quickly as possible. When the right-hand man of the rear-rank has fired, the whole will glance their eyes to the right, to bring the rifle to the ready position, and load and remain steady, waiting for the word---
Present. As before directed.
The same to be repeated a third time
The commanding officer will then step to the front, and give the following commands:
When artillery arc present and are ordered to fire twenty-one guns, seven will be fired before each round of the feu de joie.
MANNER OF INSPECTING A COMPANY ON PARADE
The company to fall in at " The Order. " The muzzle stoppers to be removed.
Open order - March
The inspecting officer will now pass down the ranks to ascertain that the appointments, clothing &c. are clean and in good order.
For Inspection. Port-Arms. When at " The Port, " half-cock the rifle, and open the breech, holding the block between the forefinger and thumb of the right hand by means of the thumb-piece and nipple-lump.
The officer will again go down the ranks to gee that the breech-shoe and breech-block are free from rust, and otherwise clean ; also to see that the breech-block is free in its action. Each soldier, as the officer approaches within one file of him, will turn the barrel of his rifle full to the front with his left hand, lock downwards, and draw back the breech-block with his right hand.
Close order - March.
Examine-Arms. Both ranks will come to the position of " Charge swords: " the rear rank men, in turning to the right, will raise their rifles perpendicularly, so as to clear the front-rank men when coming down to the charge.
The officer will now proceed to look through each barrel, to see that it is clean and free from dust. The seaman, when the officer passes the file nearest to him, will close the breech; ease springs ; order arms ; and stand at ease.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR CLEANING THE SNIDER BREECH
1. Half-cock the rifle, and open the breech.
2. Put a piece of rag into the jag of the cleaning rod, twisting it round so as to cover it, and rub the barrel carefully up and down with it, to remove the fouling. No water to be used, but after firing blank cartridge the following mode of proceeding is to be adhered to:
The rifle to be held muzzle downwards at a convenient angle, with the breech-block open, and water poured through the barrel. This will moisten the fouling, and enable it to be removed by a rag at the end of the cleaning rod. This method of pouring the water is not liable to wet the breech-block or other parts of the breech arrangements of the rifle. The rag, which may be wetted, should then be placed over the muzzle and pressed into the bore with the head of the rammer care being taken that the rammer head is equally covered all round ; the barrel is then to be wiped out with rag or tow until it is perfectly dry, and afterwards with an oiled
3. Replace the afore-mentioned rag by an oil rag, woollen if possible, and pass the latter up and down the barrel.
4. Wipe the breech-shoe and breech-block all over with an oil rag, to remove dirt, and to prevent rust.
5. Close the a breech and ease springs.
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