Contents
 
Boy's Manual of Seamanship and Gunnery

Weights & Measures

Division of the Circle.
60 Seconds 1 Minute.
60 Minutes 1 Degree.
360 Degrees 1 Circumference.
4 Minutes of Time = 1 Degree of Longitude.
15 Degrees = 1 Hour.

Time.
60 Seconds 1 Minute.
60 Minutes 1 Hour.
24 Hours 1 Mean Solar Day.
7 Days 1 Week.
28 Days 1 Lunar Month.
12 Calendar Months (365 Days) 1 Civil Year.
365 Days, 5 Hours, 48 Minutes, 47.6352 Seconds 1 Solar Year.

Money.
4 Farthings = 1 Penny. 20 Shillings = 1 Pound.
12 Pence = 1 Shilling. 21 Shillings = 1 Guinea.

NOTE.-   dwts. grs.
A Sovereign - ...... weighs 5 3 1/6 7/2 1/3 Troy
A Half-Sovereign - ...... " 2 13 3/6 9/2 7/3
A Crown - ...... " 18 4 4/11
A Half-Crown - ...... " 9 2 2/11
A Shilling - ...... " 3 15 3/11
A Sixpence - ...... " 1 19 7/11
A Fourpenny Piece - ...... " 1 5 1/11
A Threepenny Piece - ...... " 0 21 9/11

WEIGHTS

Troy.*
24 Grains 1 Pennyweight.
20 Pennyweights 1 Ounce.
12 Ounces 1 Pound.

*Used for the precious metals and in Philosophical experiments. Diamonds and other precious atones are weighed by carats of 3 1/6- grs. 151 1/2 carats are equal to an ounce Troy..

NOTE.-By an Act of Parliament (5 George IV., c. 74), it was enjoined that the standard of weight for the Kingdom should henceforward be the Imperial pound Troy of 5760-grs, and that in case the standard should be lost injured it or might be recovered from the knowledge of the fact, that a cubic inch of distilled water, at a temperature of 62 Fahrenheit, and when the barometer is at 30-in., weighs 252-458 of these grains.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

Avoirdupois.*
27.34375 Troy Grains. 1 Drachm
16 Drachms 1 Ounce.
16 Ounces 1 Pound.
14 Pounds 1 Stone.
28 Pounds 1 Quarter.
4 Quarters. 1 Hundredweight
20 Hundredweight 1 Ton,

*Used for all ordinary Goods.

NOTE.-By the before-mentioned Act, it is provided that the Pound Avoirdupois shall consist of 7000 Grains Troy.

Apothecaries.
20 Grains 1 Scruple.
3 Scruples 1 Drachm.
8 Drachms 1 Ounce.
12 Ounces 1 Pound.

By this Weight only, Apothecaries compound their Medicines; but Drugs are bought and sold by Avoirdupois Weight.

NOTE.-The Grain, Ounce, and Pound, are the same as in Troy Weight.

480 Minims, or Drops = 1 Fluid Ounce.
20 Ounces = 1 Pint.
8 Pints = 1 Gallon.
8750 Grains of Distilled Water = 1 Imperial Pint.
437.5 Ditto Ditto . = 1 Imperial Fluid Ounce.

MEASURES

Wine Measure.
4 Gills 1 Pint.
2 Pints 1 Quart.
4 Quarts 1 Gallon.
10 Gallons 1 Anker.
18 Gallons 1 Runlet.
42 Gallons 1 Tierce.
63 Gallons 1 Hogshead.
84 Gallons 1 Puncheon.
126 Gallons 1 Pipe.
252 Gallons 1 Tun.

Ale Measure.
4 Gills 1 Pint.
2 Pints 1 Quart.
4 Quarts 1 Gallon.
9 Gallons 1 Firkin.
18 Gallons 1 Kilderkin.
36 Gallons 1 Barrel.
54 Gallons 1 Hogshead.
72 Gallons 1 Puncheon.
108 Gallons 1 Butt.

Dry Measure.
2 Imperial Gallons, 1 Peck.
4 Pecks 1 Bushel.
8 Bushels 1 Quarter.
32 Bushels 1 Chaldron.
40 Bushels 1 Wey, or Load,
8 Bushels 1 Last.

Measure of Solidity, or Cubic Measure.
1728 Cubic inches 1 Cubic Foot
2200 Cylindrical Inches (nearly)
3300 Spherical Inches (nearly)
6600 Conical Inches (nearly)
27 Cubic Feet 1 Cubic Yard.
1357.17 Cubic Inches 1 Cylindrical Foot.
904.78 Cubic Inches 1 Spherical Foot.
459.39 Cubic Inches 1 Conical Foot.

NOTE.-A Cubic Inch is a cube 1-in. square; a Cylindrical Inch is a cylinder 1-in. long and 1-in. in diameter; a Spherical Inch is a sphere 1-in. in diameter; and a Conical Inch is a Cone 1-in. in length, and 1-in. in diameter at the base.

Measure of Surface, or Square Measure.
144 Square Inches 1 Square Foot.
9 Square Feet 1 Square Yard.
30 Square Yards 1 Square Pole.
40 Square Poles . 1 Square Rood.
4 Roods (4840 Sq. Yards). 1 Statute Acre.
640 Acres 1 Square Mile.
6084 Square Yards 1 Scotch Acre.
7840 Square Yards 1 Irish or Plantation Acre.
113.0972 Square Inches 1 Circular Foot.
183.346 Circular Inches 1 Square Foot.

NOTE.-A Circular Foot is a circle whose diameter is One Foot.

Superficial Measure for Land.
62.7264 Square Inches 1 Square Link.
10000 Square Links 1 Square Chain.
10 Square Chains 1 Acre.

Measure of Length.

12 Lines 1 Inch.
12 Inches 1 Foot
3 Feet 1 Yard.
5 Yards 1 Pole, Rod, or Perch.
40 Poles 1 Furlong.
8 Furlongs (1760 Yards) 1 Mile.
2240 Yards 1 Irish Mile.
14 English Miles 11 Irish Miles.
3 Miles 1 League.

Miscellaneous
3 Inches 1 Palm.
4 Inches 1 Hand.
9 Inches 1 Span.
18 Inches 1 Cubit.
5 Feet 1 Pace.
6 Feet 1 Fathom.
120 Fathoms (strictly 126 fathoms) 1 Cable's Length.
8 Cables' Lengths 1 Nautical Mile.
600 Square Feet of Inch Boards 1 Load.
40 Cubic Feet of Round Timber 1 Ton, or Load.
50 Cubic Feet of Hewn Timber
1000 Billets, or 1 Cord of Wood.
8 Cubic Feet, or
10 Hundredweight
108 Cubic Feet 1 Stack of Wood.
630 Pounds, or

1 Fathom of Wood

6-ft. x 6-ft. x 2-ft.
84 Pounds 1 Bushel of Coals.
2 Hundredweight 1 Sack of Coals.
10 Sacks (42-ins. x 30-ins.) 1 Ton of Coals.
53 Hundredweight 1 Chaldron of Coal (Newcastle).
112 Pounds 1 Sack.
40 Cubic Feet 1 Ton of Shipping
8 Pounds of Meat or Fish 1 Stone.
56 Pounds of Butter 1 Firkin.

250 Pounds of Hops, Kentish 1 Pocket.
112 Pounds of Hops, Surrey and Sussex
236 Gallons of Sweet Oil 1 Ton
252 Gallons of Fish

I Acre Scotch, 1.271 Acres English, or 6084 Square Yards.
1 Acre Irish, 1.638 Acres English, or 7840 Square Yards.
1 Barrel, Imperial Measure 9981.86 Cubic Inches.
1 Barrel of Soap 256 Pounds.
1 Bushel, Imperial Measure 2218.19 Cubic Inches.
1 Bushel, Winchester 2150.42 Cubic Inches.
1 Bushel of Barley 50 Pounds.
1 Bushel of Coal 88 Pounds:
1 Bushel of Flour or Salt 56 Pounds.
1 Bushel of Oats 40 Pounds.
I Bushel of Wheat 60 Pounds.
I Chain 100 Links.
1 Clove of Wool 7 Pounds.
1 Fodder of Lead-Stockton 22 Hundredweight.
1 Fodder of Lead-Newcastle 21 Hundredweight.
1 Fodder of Lead-London 19 Hundredweight.
1 Gallon, Imperial Measure 277.27 Cubic Inches.
1 Gallon of Distilled Water, 60 10 Pounds.
1 Gallon of Proof Spirit or Oil. 9.3 Pounds.
1 Gallon, former Wine Measure 231 Cubic Inches.
1 Gallon, former Ale Measure 283 Cubic Inches.
1 Gallon, Irish Measure 217.6 Cubic Inches.
1 League 3 Miles.
1 Geographical Mile 1.15 English Miles.
1 Geographical Degree 19.12 English Miles.
1 Nautical Mile (mean) 6075.5 Feet.
1 Gross 12 Dozen.
1 Great Gross 12 Gross.
1 Hand 4 Inches.
1 Hundred of Deals 120 In Number.
I Hundred of Nails 120 In Number.
1 Hundred of Salt 7 Lasts.
I Last of Salt 18 Barrels.
1 Last of Gunpowder 24 Barrels.
I Last of Potash, Soap, Pitch, or Tar 12 Barrels.
1 Last of Flax or Feathers 17 Hundredweight.
1 Link 7.92 Inches.
1 Line 1/12th of an Inch.
1 Load of Bricks 500 In Number.

I Load of Corn 40 Bushels.
1 Load of Hay or Straw 36 Trusses.
1 Load of Lime 32 Bushels.
1 Load of Planks (2-inch) 300 Square Feet.
1 Load of Sand . 36 Bushels.
1 Load of Timber (Squared) 50 Cubic Feet.
1 Load of Timber (Unhewed) 40 Cubic Feet.
1 Mile 80 Chains.
1 Pack of Wool 240 Pounds.
I Palm 3 Inches.
I Pole - Woodland 18 Feet.
1 Pole - Plantation 21 Feet.
1 Pole - Cheshire 24 Feet.
1 Sack of Wool 364 Pounds.
1 Seam of Glass 124 Pounds
1 Cubit 18 Inches.
1 Span 9 Inches.
1 Military Pace 5 Feet.

Cloth Measure
2 Inches I Nail.
4 Nails I Quarter.
4 Quarters 1 Yard.
3 Quarters 1 Flemish Ell.
5 Quarters 1 English Ell.
6 Quarters I French Ell.

RELATIVE VALUE OF BRITISH AND FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

  Weights.  
French.   British.
Gramme 15.434 Grains.
Décigramme 1.5434 Grains.
Centigramme 0.15434 Grains.
Milligramme 0.015434. Grains
Decagramme 154.34 Grains.
Hectogramme 3.527 Ounces Avoirdupois, or
3.2154 Ounces Troy.
Kilogramme 2.6795 Pounds Troy, or
2.2048 Pounds Avoirdupois,

Myriagramme

26.795 Pounds Troy, or
22.048 Pounds Avoirdupois.
Quintal

1 Cwt ; 3 qrs.; 242 lbs.

Millier, or Bar 9 Tons ; 16 cwt.; 3 qrs.; 12 lbs.

Measures of Capacity
Litre* 61.028 Cubic Inches or
1,761 Imperial Pints.
Décilitre 6.1928 Cubic Inches.
Centilitre 0.6103 Cubic Inches.
Millilitre 0.0610 Cubic Inches.
Decalitre 610.28 Cubic Inches, or
2.2 Imperial Gallons.
Hectolitre 3.5317 Cubic Feet, or
2.75 Imperial Bushels.
Kilolitre 35.317 Cubic Feet.
Myrialitre 353.17 Cubic Feet.

* The Litre = a Cubic Décimètre.

Measures of Length.
Mètre 39.371 Inches.
Décimètre 3.9371 Inches.
Centimètre 0.39371 Inches.
Millimètre 0.0393'71 Inches.
Décamètre 32.809 Feet.
Hectomètre 328.09 Feet.
Kilomètre 1093.6 Yards.
Myriamètre 6.2138 Miles.

Measure of Superficies
Are 119.60 Square Yards.
Déciare 11.960 Square Yards.
Centiare 10.764 Square Feet.
Milliare 155.00 Square Inches.
Décare 1196.0 Square Yards.
Hectare 2.4712 Acres.
The Are = A Square Décimètre

Measures of Solidity.
Stère 35.317 Cubic Feet.
Décistère 3.5317 Cubic Feet.
Centistère 610.28 Cubic Inches.
Millistère 61.028 Cubic Inches.
Décastère 13.080 Cubic Yards.
Hectostère 130.80 Cubic Yards.
The Stere - A Cubic Metre.

NOTE.-The Décimètre Centimètre and Millimètre are respectively formed by dividing the Mitre by 10, 100, and 1,000; and the Décamètre, Hectomètre Kilomètre, and Myriamètre by multiplying the Mètre by 10, 100, 1,000 and 10 000. The other Measures and Weights of the Decimal System are formed in a like manner from their respective Units.

Foreign Measures with their English equivalents
COUNTRY Name of Measure Equal to 100 English Feet COUNTRY Name of Measure Equal to 100 English Feet
Amsterdam Foot 107.71 Naples Palmo. 115.60
Antwerp Foot. 106.76 Prussia Foot. 97.16
China Foot. 94.41 Riga Foot. 111.21
Copenhagen Foot. 97.16 Russia Foot. 87.27
Dantzic Foot. 106.19 Sardinia Palmo. 122.69
France Foot. 91.46 Sicily Palmo. 125.91
Genoa Foot. 123.45 Spain Foot. 107.91
Hamburgh Foot. 106.38 Sweden Foot. 102.73
Lisbon Foot. 92.73 Venice Foot. 87.71
Malta Foot. 107.52      

Foreign Weights, with their English equivalents.

COUNTRY Weights Equal to 1-Cwt. British. COUNTRY. Weights. Equal to 1-Cwt. British.
Alexandria Rottolo for Pound Flem. 119.84 Malta Rottolo 64.17
    Naples Cantaro grosso 56.99
Amsterdam 50.79    
Algiers Rottolo 94.12 Persia Batman 88.31
Barcelona Pound. 126.97 Portugal Pound. 110.68
Cairo Rottolo 117.89 Prussia Pound. 108.60
China Catty 84.00 Riga Pound. 121.51
Constantinople Oke 39.53 Rotterdam Pound. 102.82
Copenhagen Pound. 101.55 Russia Pound. 124.08
Cyprus Rottolo 21.35 Sardinia Pound. 128.00
Dantzic Pound. 108.42 Sicily Pound. 160.00
France Livre usuelle Pound heavy 101.59 Smyrna Pound. 39.53
Spain Pound. 110.40
Geneva 145.69 Sweden Pound. 149.33
Trieste Pound. 90.75
Hamburgh Pound. 104.86 Tripoli Pound. 100.00
Japan Catty. 86.15 Tunis Pound. 100.85
Leghorn Pound. 149.61 Venice Pound. 50.79
Madeira Pound. 110.79      

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