Index
 
Kings Regulations & Admiralty Instructions - 1913

Chapter XXVII

Engine Department

SECTION   PAGE
I. General Instructions 317
II. Coaling 321
III. Engineer Rear-Admiral or Engineer Captain 325
IV. Engineer Officer 326
V. Engineer Officer of Watch 331

SECTION I. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS.

909. Captain and Engineer Officer.- On first appointment the Captain and the Engineer Officer will each make himself acquainted with the principles and construction of the boilers and machinery, with their age and the nature and date of any extensive repairs they may have undergone and generally, each is to use his best endeavours to become thoroughly acquainted with their history and with the capabilities of the ship in reference to her steam power.

910. New Boilers or Boilers repaired.- When any ship is fitted with new boilers or the boilers are thoroughly repaired in a dockyard at home or abroad, the Chief Engineer of the dockyard will furnish the Engineer Officer of such ship with a drawing showing the construction of the boilers, the nature of the material, and the original and present thickness of the plates and stays ; and with a copy of the report of examination and drill or other tests made to ascertain the wear and waste at such time of repair, and with any other information which may be of value in connection with the boilers of the ship or vessel.

911. Steam Trials.- The Captain and all officers of the ship concerned are to be on board at all trials while they are proceeding, and the Captain and the Engineer Officer are to sign the reports.

Particulars as to the responsibility of dockyard officers during trials are given in Article 809, Home Dockyard Regulations.

912. Steam Trials after Repair.- Whenever a ship in commission is tried under way after repair, the machinery is to remain under the charge of the Engineer Officer of the ship.

2. The Chief Engineer of the yard, or his deputy, with as many dockyard workmen as he may consider necessary, will attend the trial to watch whether the repairs have been effected satisfactorily.

3. The trial is to be attended, when the service permits, by the Engineer Captain of the fleet to which the slip belongs.

913. Raising Steam quickly.- Great care should be taken by the engineer officers to prevent sudden changes of temperature in boilers having water outside tubes ; the steam should be raised as slowly as practicable. In cases of emergency only, steam may be raised in from two to three hours, the longer time being allowed for high-pressure boilers. In boilers of the water-tube type, however, steam may be raised more rapidly; but sufficient time should be given for thoroughly warming up the engines before attempting to move them under steam.

914. Stokers' Watches.- When the ship is under steam, Stokers are not to be worked in two watches, except in urgent circumstances, and when they are necessarily so employed it is only in cases of real emergency that watch and watch is to be continued for more than 24 hours.

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915. Speed.- The following classification of the speeds to be used on different occasions is to be adopted :

(a) The authorised power with natural draught = the unit.
(b) "With all despatch" (the maximum power to be used for 30 hours) = 4/5ths the unit.
(c) " With despatch " (the continuous sea-going speed while the coal lasts) =3/5ths the unit.
(d) "With moderate despatch" =2/5ths the unit.
(e) "Ordinary speed 1/5th = the unit.
(f) "Most economical speed," as determined by trial and in accordance with the varying conditions of wind and weather

2. As regards (a) and (b), the proportion of power stated as being obtainable for a given time, or the time during which that power is to be maintained, viz., eight hours at authorised natural draught, or 30 hours at four-fifths of this power, should never, except in cases of emergency, be exceeded ; and as regards (c) the proportion of power named should not be materially exceeded when the period of steaming exceeds 30 hours. The powers developed when running the ordinary quarterly passage trials should also be governed by the foregoing remarks as regards (a) and (c).

3. The authorised power with natural draught (a) is to be used only in an emergency, or as directed in the regulations relating to passage trials ; the air pressures to be used for the attainment of this power are not to exceed those given in Article 56, clause 2, Steam Manual.

4. The four-fifths power (b) is only to be used in cases of urgency.

5. With Despatch.- When steaming " with despatch " (c), ample boiler power is to be employed, and the engine-room staff should be in three watches.

6. " Ordinary Speed "(c) is the speed at which passages are to be ordinarily made, but should be superseded by the " most economical speed " when it is required to steam the greatest distance for a given amount of coal. The " most economical speed " should also be used in those cases where the ordinary speed is less than the " most economical speed."

In determining the most economical rate at which to make a voyage, the coal expenditure for auxiliary purposes should be taken into account, especially when this expenditure is large.

7. Ordinary Passages.- The rate of speed at which ordinary passages are to be made is left to the discretion of the Commanders-in-Chief and Senior Officers, who will decide, after taking into consideration the nature of the service which has to be performed.

8. Assistance from Deck.- Assistance should be given from the deck, whenever the coal is worked back, to bring it into more accessible positions, if the work cannot be properly done without ; also in those cases where the power developed exceeds that on which the stokehold staff is based, the assistance should be in proportion to the increase of power.

9. Basis of Stokehold Staff.- The stokehold staff is generally based upon the development of the following proportions of the natural draught power, the staff being in three watches and assistance given from deck when the coal is worked back:

Battleships, cruisers, sloops, and gunboats fitted with tank boilers or water-tube boilers of the small tube type. 3/5ths the authorised natural draught power.
Vessels fitted with water-tube boilers of the) large tube type.) the authorised natural draught power.

916. Most economical Speed.- The Captain is to take the earliest opportunity, when engaged on ordinary service in calm weather, of ascertaining

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the most economical rate of speed for the ship, that is to say, the speed at which the greatest distance can be run per ton of coal. For this purpose the engines are to be worked at different rates of speed for at least 12 hours at each rate, and the consumption of coal in cwts. per hour, speed of the ship, distance run per ton of coal, and the average indicated horse-power developed are to be carefully calculated and inserted in the engine-room register, with all other particulars concerning the working of the machinery and boilers during these trials.

2. If the most economical speed should not have been ascertained within the first six months of a ship's commission, full reasons for not having done so are to be given in the engine-room register for each subsequent quarter, and not merely the entry " not ascertained."

917. Trials of Machinery.- In order to ensure that the machinery is kept in efficient order, and to give opportunities of training the engine-room complement in working the engines at high speed, trials are to be made as laid down in Articles 441-451, Steam Manual.

2. The results of the trials are to be rendered on form S. 346. A copy of each report is to be entered in the engine-room register.

3. Readiness of Engines and Boilers.- The engines and boilers are always to be kept in such good order as to render them fit for making a full-power trial at any time; but such parts as stuffing boxes, escape valves, air and feed pump valves, and the bearings of the connecting rods and crank shafts which sometimes give trouble during a long trial at full power, should be more especially watched and kept in good order to ensure satisfactory results being obtained.

4. When passages are not made during the quarter giving the opportunity for carrying out these trials, the ship will, if the exigencies of the service permit, proceed to sea especially for the purpose of trial.

5. The Commander-in-Chief will order a full-power trial of the machinery in any case in which he may consider it desirable that such a trial should be made, but this trial is not to exceed those laid down in Articles 441-451, Steam Manual.

6. Surveying Ships.- Passage trials are not to be made by vessels employed on surveying service.

918. When Trials may be given up.- If the Engineer Officer represents to the Captain that the machinery and boilers are in such a condition as to render it desirable not to press them at the time by a full-power trial, having regard to the general efficiency of the ship, such trial may be given up, at the discretion of the Captain, with the approval of the senior officer present, but in every such case a special report is to be made to the Commander-in-Chief for the information of the Admiralty, whether it was on account of the condition of the machinery or boilers, or from temporary causes which will be remedied.

919. Reduction of Speed in High Temperatures.- When under steam in places where the temperature in the open air is excessive and the draught poor, the Captain, if the service permits, is to use his discretion in reducing the speed, and the pressure or the number of boilers, with the view of lessening the injurious effects of heat upon the engine-room staff and the crew generally. If any unusual number of the crew be overcome by the heat, a special report of the circumstance is to be forwarded to the Admiralty, giving the temperatures on deck and in the engine-rooms and stokeholds, stating the speed of the ship, the number of boilers in use, and the extent to which the artificial draught was used.

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920. Defects which necessitate putting into Port.- When the Engineer Officer considers it absolutely necessary that the ship should put into port on account of defects in the machinery or boilers, he is to make a written report to that effect to his Captain, stating the reasons which render such a step necessary instead of making the requisite repairs at sea.

If there is a senior officer at the port visited, this report is to be forwarded to him with the defect list, and, after making upon it any remarks he may have to offer, he will transmit it to the Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer of the station or squadron, by whom, in special cases, it will be forwarded to the Secretary of the Admiralty ; if no senior officer is present, the Captain will forward it direct. See 1092 (Preparation of Defect Lasts).

2. A careful inquiry is to be held on any defect which is considered to be due either to faulty design of the machinery or to want of care, and in the case of the former a recommendation should be made as to how it is proposed to modify the design.

921. Survey on Relief of Engineer Officer.- When the Engineer Officer in charge of the machinery is relieved, the Captain is to apply to the senior officer present for a competent engineer officer of some other ship to examine the machinery and boilers, as provided for in Article 15 of Steam Manual, and to make, with the engineer officer taking charge, a joint report of their condition to the Captain of the ship on form S. 354, which is to be attached to the engineroom register for the current quarter, a duplicate being sent to the Commander-in-Chief for his inspection, who will return it afterwards to the Captain for his use. Whenever practicable this examination is to be carried out by the Engineer Captain appointed for service with the fleet.

2. If it should be impracticable to make this examination when the Engineer Officer first joins his ship, a report is to be made by the Captain to the Admiralty to that effect, but he is to see that the foregoing regulations are complied with as soon as the exigencies of the service will admit.

922. Economy of Fuel.- Officers in command of fleets, squadrons, or single ships, are at all times to be careful to economise the consumption of fuel so far as may be consistent with the service on which they are engaged ; and, as a rule, all appliances for economising fuel which are fitted to each particular ship are to be made use of.

923. Particulars of Coal supplied.- The Captain will be furnished from naval establishments, whenever storage arrangements render it practicable, or by the contractors with full particulars as to the exact description of all fuel, whence obtained, and the date of being placed in the depot or collier, whenever coal or patent fuel is received from them.

2. T.B.D.s or T.B.s.- Patent fuel is not to be issued to torpedo boats or torpedo boat destroyers unless exceptional circumstances render it desirable.

924. Steamboats.- The employment of steamboats is to be limited to occasions of necessity. Except in a case of emergency, steam is not to be raised in them without the permission, special or general, of the senior officer present. When two or more ships are together the senior officer will arrange that no more steamboats are employed than are required for the service of the port, or of the ships present. The use of a steamboat is to be entered in the ship's log.

925. Steam Manual.- In addition to the instructions contained herein, all officers are to be guided, in the use and management of the machinery and boilers, by the further regulations and instructions given in the Steam Manual, which are furnished for their information and guidance, so far as they may concern the machinery and boilers fitted to their ships.

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SECTION II. COALING.

926. On receipt of Coal on board ship, either from any of His Majesty's, coal depots &c., or from a contractor, the Engineer Officer is to satisfy himself at the time that the quantity is substantially correct, and so far as possible, in case of a receipt from a contractor, that the quality is in accordance with the conditions of the contract.

2. Measurement of Coal from Lighters.- If brought alongside in lighters, the contents of the lighters should be ascertained by measurement (except in the case provided for in clause 5), and if delivered in bags or baskets, &c., the bags, baskets, &c., are to be counted, and 10 per cent. of the total number weighed, care being taken that those weighed are selected indiscriminately and not in any special rotation or numerical order. In proving quantities by this method, it is to be borne in mind that the result can only be approximately correct even if the greatest care be taken, as the turn of the scale alone may make a considerable difference.

3. When supply is made by means of lighters, and it is not convenient to receive the coal on board immediately, precautionary measures e.g., sealing the hatches of the lighters, mooring the lighters near the ship, or setting a watch on them - are to be taken to prevent the contents from being tampered with.

4. Whenever coal may be sent alongside in lighters, the contents of which have not been already ascertained and agreed to by the ship's officers, the agent of the Naval Store Officer or contractor is to be called upon to produce a "boat note," or other memorandum, of the contents of each lighter, so that if there should be any deficiency of quantity, the particular lighter or lighters in which it occurs will be known at once, and investigation facilitated accordingly.

5. Checking Quantities.- In whatever manner the coal is supplied, the weighing or other check of quantity, whether it take place on shore or at the ship's side is to be attended by an officer or other person from the ship and an agent of the Naval Store Officer or contractor at the same time, so as to ensure that an agreement as to the quantity supplied shall in all cases be arrived at on the spot at the time of receipt. Any settlement of differences, whether with the Naval Store Officer or contractor, is to be stated in detail upon the receipt given for the coal. In the case where dockyard lighters marked with load lines are used, the quantities in the lighters, verified from the dockyard book kept for the purpose, are to be sent off with the boat note, and the attendance of the agent of the coal depot for the purpose of checking weights may be dispensed with.

6. Inspection of Colliers. When coal is received direct from a collier away from a naval port a receipt is to be given to the master by the Senior Naval Officer for the bill of lading quantity when the cargo is entirely discharged, provided he is satisfied before breaking bulk that there is no reason to suspect that any, of the cargo has been abstracted on the voyage. With this end in view he is to cause the remains in the bunkers to be inspected on arrival and again after discharge. The hatchways on arrival are also to be inspected. The weighing of bags or baskets, as explained in clause 2, should still be continued for the purpose of apportioning the bill of lading quantity to the vessels taking the coal.

In cases where bulk is first broken or a collier finally cleared by His Majesty's ships at a naval port, the necessary work of accounting, &c., is to be performed by the Naval Store Officer (as for a supply from stock) and supply notes furnished by him to the ships coaled, but the inspection of the collier's holds and bunkers should be carried out by the ship breaking bulk, or sweeping collier, as the case

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may be, and the Commanding Officer is to furnish the Naval Store Officer with a certificate (S. 1239) of the result of the inspection immediately it has taken place (aide instructions on form S. 1239).

7. Account of distribution of Cargo.- A statement (form S. 131) showing the distribution of each cargo received when away from a naval port is to be forwarded to the Director of Stores on the same day as the bill of lading is receipted, and is to be accompanied by the receipts of the various officers who have been supplied. In the case of transport or time charter colliers the account S. 131 is prepared by the master and rendered by him to the Senior Naval Officer for transmission. The account for colliers on ordinary freight charters is to be prepared and forwarded by the Senior Naval Officer. The bill of lading quantity for which the receipt is given to the collier may be expected to differ to some extent from the total of the quantities for which receipts are taken by the Senior Naval Officer from the ships supplied, as the weighing by bags or baskets can only be approximately correct, but a pro rata adjustment is to be made in the quantities for which receipts are taken in order to effect an agreement with the total bill of lading quantity.

The form S. 131 referred to contains full instructions as to how it is to be prepared.

8. Differences.- Where the quantity of coal received on board differs from that taken on charge the difference is not to be included in quantity entered in expense book as used, but is to be written off charge therein as a separate entry under the heading "Extraordinary expenditure."

9. Adjustment.- When colliers, after discharging part of their cargo to a fleet, proceed to a naval port to discharge the balance, or when colliers after a partial discharge at a naval port are ordered to proceed to the fleet, the account with supporting vouchers is to be forwarded to the Naval Store Officer, who will calculate the pro rata adjustment of differences after discharge has been completed and will communicate particulars to the Senior Naval Officer concerned.

10. Demurrage.- When notice of the expiration of the period allowed for free discharge of a collier is received from the master, the following action should be taken :

  1. If concurred in the communication should be acknowledged by the Senior Naval Officer " without prejudice."
  2. If not concurred in, the Senior Naval Officer should so inform the master, and state briefly the reasons for protesting against the claim. A request should, at the same time, be made that the receipt of the communication may be promptly acknowledged.

If the master in his acknowledgment still adheres to his application, he should then be informed that the question of demurrage will be settled in England between the Admiralty and the shipowners.

All local correspondence in regard to demurrage is to be restricted to the discussion of the circumstances and views of the parties concerned, but no attempt is to be made locally to determine the amount of demurrage payable. A full report on the subject accompanied by a copy of the local correspondence should be forwarded to the Admiralty at the earliest possible date, and the times of arrival, commencement and completion of discharge, and any other dates likely to affect the claim for demurrage, should be endorsed on all bills of lading.

11. Inspection of Shipments.- Whenever it is possible to do so, the Admiralty coal inspectors at the ports of shipment in South Wales will inspect each shipment from these ports, and certify on the bills of lading as to quality. Coals certified by the inspectors to have been shipped in good condition and in

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accordance with the terms of the contract are not liable to rejection, but if the bills of lading be not so endorsed, or if the inspector states thereon that he has not been able to inspect the shipment, or that he is not satisfied with it, and that it requires examination before receipt, it is to be inspected on delivery.

927. Purchase at Home Ports.- An abstract of coal contracts at certain home ports is distributed annually to His Majesty's ships by the Director of Navy Contracts. As the prices vary from year to year, the Captain should request the contractors to produce the copy of the contract in force at the time of the supply.

The coating capabilities of firms at various ports will be found in the book of " Sources of Supply of Coals, Oil, and Fresh Provisions at Home Ports," which is issued annually to His Majesty's ships. Failing this, the Senior Officer, the Inspecting Officer of the Division, the District Paymaster, or other Coast Guard officer possessing local knowledge, is to be consulted as to the best firms from whom to obtain tenders.

928. Refilling Coal Sacks.- When filled coal sacks are supplied to His Majesty's ships from a naval yard, any refilling during coaling is to be done by the crew of the ship, who are also to refill the sacks before leaving, unless the Senior Officer considers it necessary to make other provision for this labour on account of the ship being required immediately for the manoeuvres or other important services.

929. Coaling Gear.- Prior to commencing coaling operations the officer or other person in charge of the coaling gear is to count over to an officer of His Majesty's ships to be coaled all the articles in his custody, and a voucher is to be presented for signature showing the number of each description on board. After the coaling is completed, the gear should again be counted in the presence of an officer of the ship to ascertain the extent, if any, of the losses, and a final agreement should be arrived at in writing on the spot.

2. Fleet Coalings.- On each occasion of a general fleet coaling, a summary of the results (form S. 593) is to be forwarded to the Secretary of the Admiralty (Naval Store Branch). The form may also be used for reporting any exceptional individual performances when coaling from colliers, lighters or shore.

3. Report of Losses.- A report, on form S. 229, is to be forwarded to the Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer by the Captains after each coaling operation, whether there have been any losses of coaling gear, &c., or not, giving particulars as to time, place, and manner of coaling, description and number of articles lost, and quantity of coal deficient, with such remarks as the Captain of the ship may consider necessary as to the responsibility for such loss.

4. Requisition for Coaling Gear.- In the event of a ship being coaled from a collier supplied with collier outfits, the officer in charge of the coaling is to requisition the master of the collier for such gear as may be required, and at the close of the coaling he is to furnish the master with a list of articles missing, if any, for transmission with his accounts. A report of the losses is then to be made to the Commander-in-Chief as directed above.

5. Coaling by Baskets.- In cases where it is considered desirable to carry out the coaling by baskets, every endeavour is to be made to prevent unnecessary damage to the baskets, and after coaling they are to be freed from coal dust as far as possible. New baskets are not to be used so long as worn baskets are available, and the most suitable description which is obtainable is to be employed for the purpose, due regard being given to economical working.

6. Inspection of Gear after Coating.- After each occasion of coaling, all coaling strops and the beckets of all coal sacks and bags are to be specially

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examined, and any necessary repairs executed before the articles are used again. An entry to the effect that the inspection has been carried out is to be made in the ship's log after each coaling operation. Where coaling takes place only at infrequent intervals, an inspection of all strops and beckets should be made every six months, and any articles which may be found defective are to be repaired or renewed as necessary. The examination, &c., after each coating operation is also to be carried out in these cases.

7. Test of Collier's Gear.- Where coaling takes place direct from colliers, arrangements are to be made for the hoisting and coaling gear belonging to the collier to be inspected and tested by an officer of His Majesty's ship before coaling with a view to ensuring that no unserviceable gear, e.g., derricks, whips, slings, beckets of coal sacks, is made use of during the coaling. The test to be applied is to be a dead load of twice the weight of the ordinary hoist.

930. Inferior Quality of Coal.- If coal or fuel supplied should appear to be of inferior quality, or be found to possess peculiar qualities as to waste, smoke, or difficulty in generating steam, full particulars of these defects are to be carefully noted in the engine-room register, and a report by letter immediately sent to the Admiralty, accompanied by all the particulars as to the name, source, and age of the coal ; and, if received direct from contractors, the obligations specified in the conditions of contract should be ascertained and enforced.

931. Coal Contracts Abroad.- Abstracts of coal contracts at certain ports abroad are distributed annually to His Majesty's ships by the Director of Navy Contracts. As the prices vary from year to year, the Captain should request the contractor to produce the copy of the contract in force at the time of the supply.

At ports abroad, where the Admiralty have contracts for the supply of coal to His Majesty's ships, the coal should be inspected, as a rule, once in each quarter by the officers specified, to see that the stock required by the terms of the contract is kept on hand, and a report made on form S. 1313, and transmitted to the Senior Officer. The report need not be forwarded to the Admiralty unless the stock is less than the stipulated quantity.

932. Purchase at Ports abroad.- The coaling capabilities of firms at the various ports abroad will be found in the book of "Sources of Supply of Coals, Oil, and Fresh Provisions at Ports Abroad," which is issued annually to His Majesty's ships. Failing this the Senior Naval Officer, or, in his absence, H.B.M. colonial or consular officer, is to be consulted as to the best firms from whom to obtain tenders.

933. Coaling and Watering Plants at Depots.- A return, on form D. 610, showing the number and condition of the lighters and other plant appropriated for coaling purposes, also particulars of the storage accommodation for steam-vessel coals, and a similar return with respect to watering plant on form D. 613, rendered at the same time, are to be forwarded to the Commander-in-Chief for transmission to the Admiralty from each of His Majesty's naval yards and coaling depots at home and abroad. They are to reach the Admiralty not later than 1st October in each year.

934. Instructions as to filling Coal Bunkers.- Where no special instructions to the contrary have been inserted on the statement of stability in the Captain's ship's book, the coal-bunkers may be filled at the option of the Captain.

Prior to the receipt of the statement of stability instructions should be asked in any case of doubt on this point.

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935. Trimming Coal.- The work of trimming coal in the bunkers of His Majesty's ships should ordinarily be performed by the crew. Captains have a discretionary power of employing coolies in exceptional cases of taking coal on board in the tropics when the heat is great and the circumstances particularly trying, but labour should not be hired for this work unless special and exceptional circumstances make it necessary.

SECTION III. ENGINEER REAR-ADMIRAL OR ENGINEER CAPTAIN.

936. The Engineer Rear-Admiral on the staff of the Commander-in-Chief at a home port will perform such duties in connection with the ships attached to the port as may be ordered by the Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer.

937. The Engineer Rear-Admiral or Engineer Captain on the staff of a Flag Officer commanding a fleet or squadron will superintend generally all matters connected with the steam machinery and boilers of the ships attached to the fleet or squadron, and when ordered he is to visit such ships in connection with his duties at any time. Upon arrival on board he will inform the Captain of the object of his visit before commencing his inspection or other duty.

938. Inspections.- He is to inspect once in each quarter, or oftener if necessary, the engines, boilers, and machinery of the ships under his superintendence, and he is to inform the Flag Officer Commanding of the result. On these inspections he is very carefully to examine the engine-room registers and engineer's expense books, and to report any neglect he may discover in the correct recording of all the information required to be inserted in the register, and any undue or excessive expenditure of stores. The dates of his inspection are to be noted on the first page of the register, and signed by him.

939. Examination of Registers.- He is to examine, quarterly, the engineroom registers of the ships on the station when referred to him by the Commander-in-Chief, to ascertain whether they are correct, and whether the Instructions have been complied with, reporting when he considers it necessary to send them back for explanation or correction. When found to be correct, he will sign the register and forward it to the Admiralty and inform the Flag Officer Commanding that they have been corrected and forwarded.

940. Report on Defects.- When engineers' defects are referred to him for report, he will examine them to ascertain the cause, if possible, and to point out the steps necessary to be taken in the circumstances and the readiest mode of effecting the repairs, reporting to the Flag Officer Commanding what assistance, if any, is required to make them good.

941. Capabilities of Engineer Officers.- He is to take every opportunity of ascertaining the capabilities of engineer officers to enable him to point out, when called upon, those who may be best qualified for any particular service or for advancement, and is to see that a suitable routine is established in each ship for the instruction of inexperienced ranks and ratings.

942. Reports on Fuel.- He is from time to time to submit to the Flag Officer Commanding that. reports from the Captain and the Engineer Officer of each ship should be called for as to the nature and description of fuel used on board their ship, and he is to ascertain and report, for the information of the Controller of the Navy, the results as obtained by actual trial, of the relative value of the different descriptions of coal or other fuels as regards economy, stowage, and generation of steam.

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943. Indicator Diagrams.- He is from time to time to submit to the Flag Officer Commanding that indicator diagrams should be furnished to him from the ships of the squadron, and any other information which may be necessary to enable him to satisfy himself as to the working conditions of the engines of each ship.

944. Suggestions for Improvement.- He is to propose to the Flag Officer' Commanding, for his consideration, or for transmission to the Admiralty, as the case may require, any measure which in his opinion may conduce to economy, or to the efficiency and improvement of all matters under his superintendence.

945. Duties, when absent.- In the absence of an Engineer Rear-Admiral and an Engineer Captain, the Engineer Officer of the flag-ship of the Commander-in-Chief, or of the ship of the Senior Officer in command of a station or squadron, is to observe and carry out, so far as possible, the foregoing instructions.

SECTION IV. ENGINEER OFFICER.

946. General Duties.- The Engineer Officer is to be regarded as the mechanical expert of the ship, and under the Captain's directions, he may be empowered to inspect any of the mechanical fittings not in his charge, and report to the Captain on their efficiency.

2. He is to have charge of and be responsible for all machinery, fittings, &c., as laid down in Article 15, Steam Manual, 1910.

947. The Engineer's workshop, in charge of the Engineer Officer, is to be considered the main workshop for all mechanical repairs that may be necessary throughout the ship, and the Engineer Officer is to carry out all mechanical repairs of any nature which cannot be dealt with by the Armourers or torpedo staff. If the Gunnery Department require any repairs which necessitate the use of the main workshop machines, the engineering staff upon being requisitioned, after consultation with the officer in charge of the machinery, is to direct and carry out the necessary work. A similar course is to be followed if any of the electrical machinery outside the engine-room develops a mechanical fault which the torpedo staff is unable to repair.

2. Further special instructions for the Engineer Officer are contained in the Steam Manual.

948. Knowledge of Valves, &c.- The Engineer Officer and Second Engineer Officer of every ship, and if so directed any other engineer officer appointed to her, are to be examined and obtain the certificate provided for in Article 330.

949. Stores.- He is to have charge of all engineers' stores, to be responsible for the due care of them, that they are only used for purposes for which they were issued, and to keep the account of receipt, expenditure, and remains.

He will be guided by the instructions in Chapters XLVI. and XLVIL as to his accounts and the stores in his charge.

950. Positions of Pumps, Valves, &c.- He will be furnished, when fitting out, on application to the officers of the dockyard, through his Captain, with any information not already in his possession respecting fittings, and also with drawings showing the positions of the pumps, valves, and cocks, and the leads of the suction and delivery pipes, which are to be returned to the dockyard on paying off.

951. Trial of Indicators.- During the commissioning trial, a certain number of diagrams are to be taken by one of the engineer officers belonging to

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the ship, with the indicators supplied from store for the ship's use ; and a notification that this has been done, and that the indicators are efficient and likely to continue so, is to be made on the report of the trial.

952. Spare Gear.- In regard to the spare gear, he will take care to observe the detailed instructions in the Steam Manual under that head.

953. Good Order, &c., in Engine Room.- The Engineer Officer is to be responsible for the general decorum, good order, and cleanliness of the engine room, and he will see that the engineer officers and other persons employed under his control perform their duties with promptitude and to the best of their abilities. He should allot the work of his department in such a manner as will best ensure its being efficiently performed by the officers and others composing his staff, and that each may know definitely for what special duties lie is personally responsible.

954. Superintendence and Instruction of Juniors.- He will arrange that all important matters of engine-room duty are superintended by himself, or by an engineer officer in whom he can place confidence, and not left to the care of officers who from want of experience cannot be depended on. He is to take every opportunity of instructing the inexperienced engineer officers in the duties of the Engineers' Department, and is to use his best endeavours to make them efficient. Inexperienced Engineer Sub-Lieutenants should be trained under officers senior to them in the duties of stokehold watchkeeping.

2. With the sanction of the Captain he is to take care that all Engine-Room Artificers 4th Class, acting or confirmed, serving in the ship are afforded every facility for acquiring experience in the engine room to qualify them as watch-keepers, and that they receive the necessary instruction in taking and working out indicator diagrams to enable them to obtain the engine-room watch certificate.

3. Watchkeeping.- He will arrange that all engineer officers subordinate to him are employed in watchkeeping in the engine room when under way, unless in exceptional circumstances, which are to be reported to the Captain, and entered in the engine-room register. Officers employed on particular duties, as in the case of the Second Engineer Officer, those in charge of hydraulic machinery and torpedo fittings, and those employed in assisting in clerical work, should keep at least four hours' watch per diem.

955. When to be in Engine Room.- The Engineer Officer is himself to attend in the engine room and to be responsible for the due fulfilment of the duties there when going into or out of harbour or through any intricate channel, or while performing any evolution during which special care is requisite to execute with promptitude the orders given from the deck.

He is, moreover, to visit the engine room repeatedly at other times during the day, and at any time either by day or night when his presence and services may be rendered necessary by an accident or other cause.

956. Representations to Superior.- He should represent to his Captain or to the Officer of the Watch anything which is being done, or which is ordered to, be done, tending in his opinion to injure the machinery or boilers, or to cause a waste of power. Having made this representation he is to be guided by the directions contained in Articles 7 and 960.

957. Sea-cocks.- The Engineer Officer will take care that the sea-cocks of pumps are opened and closed daily, and he will report to the Captain that this has been done.

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Valves.- The Kingston flooding and other sea-cocks and valves are, under the supervision of the Engineer Officer, to be opened and shut regularly once a week to ensure their being in good working order.

Pump Suctions.-As it is a matter of vital importance that a supply of water should be readily obtained in case of fire, some or all of the Kingston valves and sea suction cocks for the Downton pumps may, with the approval of the Captain, be kept open continuously.

2. Water-tight Doors and Armoured Hatches.- Water-tight doors, whether horizontal trap or flap doors, vertical doors between decks and armoured hatches, with their securing arrangements, are in the charge of the Engineer Officer, who is responsible for their efficiency and for their being closed when not in use. They are to be examined at least once a week.

958. Steering Gear.- The Engineer Officer is to take care that the pitch and other chains in connection with the steering gear are periodically examined, and new chains shipped if necessary. At the same time an examination of the engine-room telegraph gear is to be made, the correspondence of the orders indicated on the dials of the transmitting and receiving instruments being in all cases verified by the voice pipe, or by a messenger, whether a reply telegraph its fitted or not.

2. Engine-Room Telegraph Gear.- The steam steering engine and its controlling gear, and all telegraphs and their shafting (including the helm signal gear from the rudder head to the drum or wheel which receives the wire halliards) are to be examined personally once a week by the Engineer Officer, or a competent subordinate detailed by him, and the result of his examination is to be recorded in the engine-room register.

3. On all occasions before getting under way a further examination is to be made, and the Engineer Officer is to satisfy himself by personal inspection, and by actually working the steering gear and telegraphs, that these fittings are free from obstruction, and in good working order.

A report to this effect is to be made by the Engineer Officer to the Captain at the same time that the main engines are reported ready.

4. The hand steering gear is to be occasionally lubricated and worked.

959. Engine-Room Register.- He is to keep the engine-room register (form S. 353), filling up the several columns daily, and carefully following the directions given in the book. Each day's proceedings are to be verified by his signature, and the register is to be given to the Navigating Officer to copy from it the particulars required for the ship's log book. When under steam, it is to be laid before the Captain every day soon after noon ; and when complete is to be delivered to him for transmission.

960. Suggestions as to Repairs, &c.- Whenever the Engineer Officer may, in the course of his duty, make any representation or suggestion to the Captain with reference to the repairs or preservation of the machinery or boilers, which the Captain either thinks unnecessary, or, if necessary, which the exigencies of the Service do not admit of being carried out immediately or at an early date, he will direct the Engineer Officer to note the particulars in the engine-room register.

961. Trimming Coal in Bunkers.- The Engineer Officer is to make such arrangements as may be necessary for trimming the coal in the bunkers down to the bunker doors during the intervals between steaming, or when under easy steam, this being specially necessary preparatory to steaming at a high rate of speed. He is to keep the Captain informed of the general distribution of the

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coal in the bunkers, and the quantities available in close proximity to the stokehold doors.

962. Temperature of Coal Bunkers.- When under steam he is to cause the temperature of the coal bunkers to be ascertained and noted in the engine-room register once at least every four hours, and once every 24 hours when not under steam, unless the temperature in them is found to be increasing, when it is to be obtained as often as may be considered necessary until the temperature is reduced to its normal condition.

2. Ventilation.- In all vessels which have fixed coaling shoots, the bunker lids at the tops of these shoots are to be removed for three hours every day for six days after coaling, and for three hours once a week afterwards.

963. Arrangements for Repairs, &c.- On each occasion of completing a voyage, the Engineer Officer will ascertain from the Captain, who will have been informed by the Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer, what time is available for examining and making good defects of machinery, so that he may make the necessary arrangements for completing the work, if possible, by the time the ship is next required, or for proceeding with it in such a manner as to enable him to undertake that which is the most urgent and important, whilst keeping the vessel ready within a given number of days' notice.

964. Precautions before entering Boilers.- Whenever boilers are opened up, sufficient time is to be given to allow any foul air to escape, and before any one is allowed to enter them the purity of the air is to be ascertained by the candle test, as provided for by Article 1084 (Men cleaning double bottoms).

2. Whenever boilers are opened for examination, advantage is to be taken of the opportunity to examine the whole of the mountings and clean them if necessary.

965. Testing Boilers.- He will observe the directions contained in the Steam Manual with respect to testing the boilers, reporting the result as therein required, on form S. 355. (Steam Manual, Articles 217 to 234.)

2. He will also take care that the boilers of all steamboats are tested as directed in the Steam Manual, Articles 313, clause 3, and 218, clause 4.

966. Load on Safety Valve.- He will report to the. Captain if he should at any time consider it necessary to reduce the load on the safety valves, and, with the Captain's approval, and the sanction of the senior officer present, the load is to be reduced accordingly. The amount of reduction, and the reasons for making it, are to be stated in the engine-room register, and reported to the Commander-in-Chief for the information of the Admiralty.

967. Durability of Boilers.- He is to be very careful to give full weight to all the attendant circumstances when forming his estimate of the probable durability of the boilers, for record in the engine-room register ; he is entirely responsible for the safety of the boilers under all conditions, whether they are in good order or are worn and thin ; this responsibility is in no way lessened by his having reported their actual state and recorded their estimated durability in the register, nor by any report from dockyard officers that they are fit for further specified work ; he is therefore to keep himself thoroughly acquainted with their state, and when they are worn and thin, he will use every effort to keep them fit for work with safety, until the defects can be effectually made good.

968. Reports, &c., to Superior Engineer Officers.- He is, through his Captain, to furnish the Engineer Rear-Admiral or Engineer Captain, or the

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Engineer Officer of the dockyard, with such written reports or returns as they may require relative to the state of the machinery and boilers in his charge ; and whenever those officers visit the ship he is to afford them every facility, and all the information in his power, to enable them effectually to carry out the duties entrusted to them.

969. When Machinery, &c., under Repair.- Whenever the machinery or boilers of the ship are under dockyard or contract repair, the Engineer Officer personally, or by his assistants, is to give the dockyard officers or contractor all the assistance in his power, and is to watch the progress of the work daily, from its commencement in the morning to its cessation in the evening.

2. He is to consider it part of his duty to inform those responsible for the repairs of anything that has been done or omitted which in his opinion will impair the efficiency of the machinery or boilers.

3. If during the progress of the repairs the dockyard officers or contractors do not consider it desirable to carry out any proposal he may have put forward, he is to report the circumstances to the Captain, as on the completion of the repairs he will have to state that he has satisfied himself that the machinery and boilers are in all respects in good working order.

4. He is to be responsible for the arrangements necessary to prevent danger from fire and lights, and is to allow no accumulation of clothes nor of any matter liable to spontaneous combustion in his department, and although he is in no way to interfere with the dockyard people, he is to report to his Captain if he observes any idleness or bad workmanship on their part. He is also to keep order both as regards the dockyard and contractor's men, by reporting any irregularity.

970. Plugs of Discharge Valves.- He will be careful that the plugs for the discharge valves are always fitted in place when the ship is docked, but in the case of a new ship, or a ship undergoing extensive repairs, this duty will devolve on the officers of the dockyard. They are always to be stowed as near as possible to the places on the ship's side at which they would be used.

971. Responsibility for Valves when undocking.- The Engineer Officer is responsible for ascertaining that all sea connections are shut whenever a ship is undocked, with the exception of those valves under repair by the dockyard, for which the dockyard officers are responsible, and those in connection with the submerged torpedo tubes. In the case of a new ship built at the dockyard or received from contractors, or of a ship undergoing extensive repairs at the dockyard, the dockyard officers are responsible.

972. Water for Boilers.- He is to enter the quantities of fresh water obtained by purchase or from a naval yard or depot in the engine-room register on the date of receipt, the quantities for filling boilers being distinguished from those for filling reserve tanks.

Coal, Wood, and Oil.- He is to supply coal and wood to the ship for culinary purposes, as well as oil for lighting purposes.

973. Steel Wire Rope.- The Engineer Officer is responsible that all steel wire rope (other than derrick purchases) forming part of or directly in connection with any machine placed in his charge is in a thoroughly serviceable condition, taking care that it is refitted as necessary, and acquainting himself of its state by frequent examination.

974. Instruction of Midshipmen.- The Engineer Officer is responsible for the instruction of Midshipmen as laid down in Articles 328 and 561, and in Appendix X., Part I., so as to prepare them for examination in the subjects laid down in Appendix X., Part II., par. 13 (e).

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975. Absence of Engineer Officer.- In the absence of the Engineer Officer, the senior of the engineer officers on board will observe and follow the foregoing instructions, and will be responsible for the care and proper working of the machinery and all connected with it.

SECTION V. ENGINEER OFFICER OF WATCH.

976. General Duties.- The Engineer Officer of the Watch is not to be absent from the engine-rooms or stokeholds at any time during his watch unless properly relieved; he should quit the engine-room platform as little as possible, so as to be at hand to execute the orders he may receive from the upper deck or to stop the engines in case of necessity.

When quitting the engine-room platform to inspect other parts of the department, he should leave a subordinate on the platform who is competent in these respects.

The necessary reports to the Officer of the Watch are to be made, if possible, through the voice pipes or telephones ; if this cannot be done, a proper and trustworthy person is to be sent with the message.

2. He will acquaint the Engineer Officer immediately that he discovers or is informed of anything going wrong with the machinery or boilers. He is to attend very particularly to the expenditure of coal, oil, tallow, and other stores, and to see that they are not wasted ; to record, at proper intervals all the information required relative to the working of the engines and boilers ; and, during the period of his watch, to be responsible for the good order of the engine and boiler rooms and for all the duties connected therewith. He is to certify by his initials the correctness of the entries made in the register for the period of his watch.

3. Authority.- When under steam he will have the charge and control of the Chief and other Engine-Room Artificers, and Chief and other Stokers on watch, and will exercise a general superintendence over the working of the machinery, shafting, and boilers. Great attention is at all times to be paid to ensure careful stoking.

4. Water-tight Compartments.- The officer, chief petty officer, or petty officer in charge of the machinery in each watertight compartment of His Majesty's ships is directly responsible for the efficient working and proper management of the whole of the machinery and boilers in that compartment, when no senior officer or petty officer is present. Should any accident of any kind occur, or should he observe anything which he thinks is likely to cause injury to the machinery and boilers, he is immediately to acquaint the Engineer Officer of the Watch, and his responsibility only ceases with the presence of a senior officer. He is, however, on no account to leave the compartment of which he is in charge unless properly relieved, and all communications with the Engineer Officer of the Watch should be made by the voice pipes or telephones fitted ; if, however, circumstances prevent this, a trustworthy person is to be sent with the message.

977. Evening Inspection in Harbour.- When the ship is in harbour he will personally inspect the whole of the Engine Department every evening and satisfy himself that all the cocks and valves are shut which should be, and that there are no signs of fire, nor anything lying about that may ignite spontaneously, and that there is no probability of an accident occurring in any part during the night. He will report the result of his inspection, and the temperature of the coal bunkers, to the Executive Officer at the usual rounds.

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