Kings Regulations & Admiralty Instructions - 1913

Chapter VII

Officers.- Training and Examinations Generally

I. Military Branch and Marine Officers 86
II. Engineer Branch 91
III. Medical Branch 92
IV. Accountant Branch 92
V. Warrant Officers 93
VI. Interpreters and Foreign Languages 94
VII. Examinations generally 100


317. War Courses for Flag Officers, Captains, Commanders, and marine officers extending over a period of about 15 weeks are held at the Royal Naval War College, Portsmouth, twice a year on the dates shown in the table of courses.

2. (a) Flag Officers selected to attend the course will receive, in addition to half pay, a special allowance of 15s. a day, and lodging allowance of 4s. 6d. a day, if no accommodation is available, and it is required.

The period of attendance at the course will reckon as half pay time.

(b) Captains and Commanders will be paid full pay without command money, and lodging and provision allowance, according to scale, if there is no accommodation available.

3. Flag Officers who, while undergoing the war course, are permitted to visit the Staff College at Camberley, or to carry out a coast reconnaissance with the military officers of the Staff College, will be granted a subsistence allowance of 1. a day, for any period of absence from the war course exceeding 24 hours. This allowance will be in lieu of the allowance of 15s. a day which they receive while at the War College.

318. Signal Course.- Courses of instruction in signals and fleet tactics for Flag Officers, Captains, and Commanders will be held in each year at the signal school at Portsmouth, as laid down from time to time in the table of courses.

The pay and allowances of officers attending the course will be the same as for those undergoing the war course (Article 317, clause 2).

319. Torpedo Course for Senior Officers.- Special courses of instruction in torpedo for officers of and above the rank of Commander, lasting 15 working days, will be held in the spring and autumn of each year in the " Vernon."

2. (a) Flag Officers. selected to attend the course will receive, in addition to half pay, a special allowance of 15s. a day, and lodging allowance of 4s. 6d. a day, if no accommodation is available, and it is required. The period of attendance at the course will reckon as half pay time.

(b) Captains and Commanders will be paid full pay without command money, and lodging and provision allowance according to scale, if there is no accommodation available.

3. Officers, R.M.A., below the regimental rank of Lieutenant-Colonel and above that of Lieutenant, and officers, R.M.L.I., below the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, are eligible for the course.


320. Gunnery Course for Senior Officers.- Special courses of instruction in gunnery for officers of and above the rank of Commander, lasting 15 working days, will be held in the spring and autumn of each year in the " Excellent. *

2. Officers permitted to attend this course will be under the same conditions as to remuneration and counting time as are laid down in the preceding Article.

3. Officers R.M.L.I., below the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, are eligible for this course.

321. Gunnery and Torpedo Lieutenants.- Lieutenants desirous of qualifying as Gunnery and Torpedo Lieutenants are to apply through the Captains of the ships in which they are serving, or, if on half pay, to the Secretary of the Admiralty direct, sending copies of their certificates or of other testimonials they may wish to produce. All applications should reach the Admiralty by 1st December in each year.

2. Officers selected to qualify must have previously served one year at sea as Lieutenant.

3. The final examination for Gunnery and Torpedo Lieutenants will be in March, after passing which, unless otherwise required, they will assist in the gunnery and torpedo instruction of the schools.

4. Should it be found, during any part of the course of instruction, that a Lieutenant is not likely to prove efficient as a Gunnery or Torpedo Officer, his name is to be submitted to the Admiralty with a view to his removal from the books of the " Excellent " or " Vernon."

5. Time.- Officers qualifying within the prescribed period and officers going through a short course in gunnery or torpedo will be allowed to count the whole time they are borne in the " Excellent " or " Vernon " for instruction as time on full pay.

Officers who fail to qualify, and short course officers who fail to obtain a certificate, or of their own accord leave before the completion of the course in either gunnery or torpedo, will count the time as half pay time.

6. Officers who may be removed on account of misconduct or inefficiency are only to count time as half pay time.

7. The cases of officers leaving on account of illness will be specially considered.

8. The qualifying course for Lieutenants G and T is laid down in the " Courses of Instruction in Gunnery and, Torpedo."

9. Short Courses of instruction to gunnery and torpedo, each of 40 working days, will be held annually for Lieutenants R.N. and officers R.M.A., R.I.M., and R.N.R. Officers should state, when applying to join these courses, to which gunnery or torpedo school they would prefer to be attached, and they will be appointed on the dates published in the official list of courses.

10. Pay.- Officers appointed for gunnery or torpedo duties to ships not carrying a Gunnery or Torpedo Lieutenant will receive Is. a day additional pay.

The Captains of all sea-going ships are to report annually the names of any Lieutenants serving under their command whom they would recommend for these duties.

322. Second Lieutenants R.M.A. and R.M.L.I., who pass a satisfactory examination at the end of the course at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich, will proceed to headquarters and subsequently to the " Excellent " for instruction in gunnery.

2. Second Lieutenants R.M.A. will, in addition, undergo a torpedo course in the " Vernon."

323. Navigating Officers will be selected from those who volunteer for navigating duties and who have passed the examination in signals laid down


in Appendix X., Part III. Preference will be given to officers who have obtained a 1st Class in pilotage in the examination for the rank of Lieutenant, and good classes in the other subjects.

2. Selected candidates will go through a course of instruction in the navigation school at Portsmouth. The course of instruction will last for 90 working days, part of the time being spent at sea and the remainder on shore.

3. Training Afloat.- Qualified candidates, after leaving the school, will be appointed to serve for a short period in the large ships of the Home and Mediterranean Fleets, in order that they may gain experience under the Navigating Officers in the work of a fleet in regard to navigating duties.

4. At the end of the first three months of this period, and subsequently every succeeding three months, the Captain is to forward to the Admiralty with his covering remarks a report from the Navigating Officer on the qualifications of the candidate and his general suitability for navigating duties. Upon these reports, and the result of the examination in the navigation school, the permanent appointment of officers for navigating duties will depend.

5. The letter (N) will be prefixed (in the seniority columns of the Navy List) to the names of all officers who have qualified for navigating duties. This letter will be retained against their names only while they are actually employed, or are available for employment on those duties.

6. Lieutenants (N) will be placed on exactly the same footing as regards executive command and ship's duty generally as Gunnery and Torpedo Lieutenants, and are not to be excused from any ship's duties, except those which interfere with the special duties pertaining to them. They will be appointed and succeed to the position of First Lieutenant, if a vacancy. occurs, in all ships except flag-ships where a Commander is borne, exactly in the same manner as any other specialist officer ; but in ships where no Commander is borne they will not be appointed for First Lieutenant's duties, except in special circumstances.

` 7. Officers who perform navigating duties as Lieutenant will not be required to continue those duties after promotion to the rank of Commander, unless they wish to do so. A Commander when borne for navigating duties will not be appointed as the executive officer of the ship.

8. Short Courses of Gunnery and Torpedo.- Navigating Officers. while borne in ships in commission with nucleus crews, will be given every opportunity of going through short courses of gunnery and torpedo, in order to keep themselves efficient in these duties.

9. Lieutenants (N) will be permitted to attend a course of five weeks' instruction at the navigation school prior to examination in pilotage for first class ships. The pilotage examination, the syllabus of which is given in Appendix X., Part III., is partly viva voce and partly paper work. First and second class certificates of proficiency only will be awarded.

10. Examination.- The examination will be compulsory for all Navigating Officers, who will be obliged to present themselves for examination within a reasonable time after completing three years' sea service as Lieutenant (N). An officer who fails to pass at the second trial will have his name erased from the list of Navigating Officers.

11. Navigating Officers will also be granted facilities for attending the school for a month's course of study at periodical intervals during their subsequent career.

12. The letter (N) will be prefixed (in the seniority columns of the Navy List) to the names of Commanders and Lieutenants who have passed the examination in pilotage for first class ships. This letter will be retained against


their names only while they are actually employed, or are available for employment, on navigating duties.

13. Provisional Examination.- Should it be probable that the exigencies of the Service will cause an officer to be absent from England at the date he will complete the three years' service required to render him eligible to pass for first class ships, he may be examined before leaving England, provided that he has completed two and a half years of such service ; but he will not be eligible for appointment to navigating charge of a first class ship, nor be entitled to the corresponding increase in navigating allowance until he has completed the full period of three years' qualifying service.

14. Provisional examinations may also be held in the following circumstances :

(a) A Lieutenant (whilst serving as a Navigating Officer on a foreign station), if he happen to be at sea or in a ship on detached service on the date he completes the service required to qualify him to present himself for examination for first class ships, may apply to his Captain for à provisional certificate in pilotage for first class ships, and such certificate is to be given at the discretion of the Captain, based on his knowledge of the capabilities of the applicant as a Navigating Officer, and will hold good until the ship meets the Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer. The officer must then apply for a passing day to be fixed, and a board of examining officers is to be appointed, consisting of three officers qualified for first class ships (or two if only that number be present) and presided over by a Captain.

Should the officer pass the examination, the examiners will award him a provisional certificate of qualification for first class ships, and such certificate will entitle him to increase of allowance from the date of the certificate granted by his Captain, but dependent on his passing the regular examination on returning to England. If, after his arrival in England, an officer neglects to take an opportunity of passing the regular examination, and, before passing, receives another appointment for navigating duties, he will not be allowed to receive the increased allowance. Should the officer eventually fail to pass, he will be called upon to refund the amount of the increased allowance which he has received since passing the provisional examination.

(b) A Lieutenant who completes the service required to qualify him to present himself for examination for first class ships whilst serving as a Navigating Officer on a home station, may apply to his Captain for. and may be granted, a provisional certificate as provided for in sub-clause (a) of this clause. The intermediate examination by a board of officers will not be required in such cases, but the officer must present himself at the next general examination on board the navigation school ship, when, if he pass, he will become entitled to the authorised increase of allowance from the date of his provisional certificate. Should, however, an officer be prevented, by duty or sickness, from presenting himself on the fast examination day, he must produce a certificate from his Captain to that effect when he does present himself, as otherwise he will not be entitled to the increase of allowance until the date of passing.

On an officer passing provisionally, a notation is to be made against his name on the ships books, stating the date of such passing. No payment at the increased rate is to be made until he has passed the final examination on board the navigation school ship.


45. All provisional certificates are to be granted in duplicate, and are to be attached to the final passing certificates, upon which the dates of the Captain's certificate and of the provisional passing are to, be noted,.

324. Command of Destroyers and Torpedo Boats.- No officer will be considered for the command of a torpedo boat destroyer or torpedo boat until he has passed practical examinations in navigation and pilotage, in gunnery and torpedo, and in signals, as set forth in Appendix X., Part IV.

2. In the event of an officer appointed to command a torpedo boat destroyer or torpedo boat not having passed the prescribed examinations he will be required to do so within three months of the date of his appointment. Failure to pass will necessitate the supersession of the officer.

325. Signal Lieutenant.- An officer desirous of qualifying as Signal Lieutenant must possess the following qualifications :

  1. He must have completed at least one year's watchkeeping duties as a Lieutenant in a ship at sea.
  2. He must be recommended by his Commanding Officer as having a good knowledge of signalling, and as being likely to make a good signal officer.

2. Officers selected to qualify for signal duties will undergo a course of 14 weeks' duration in the signal school, followed by a 5 weeks' course of wireless telegraphy in H.M.S. " Vernon."

3. The letter (S) will be prefixed (in the seniority columns of the Navy List to the name of each officer who has qualified as Signal Lieutenant.

326. Officers specialising.- Officers who passed into the service afloat as Midshipmen in or after May 1908 must serve for not less than two years as commissioned officers at sea, the proportion of time as Sub-Lieutenant and Lieutenant depending on the class of certificate obtained ; but at least one year must be as a Lieutenant in charge of a watch in a sea-going ship. At the end of this service officers will be selected to specialise in the various branches. Those who are accepted for gunnery, torpedo, navigation or engineering, will attend a course of two terms, approximately six months, at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich. This course of instruction will comprise such studies as will fit the officers to prepare for the practical courses of specialisation. The marks obtained in the Lieutenants' course will be carried forward and contribute to determine the class taken on qualifying after the practical course at the specialist schools. These Lieutenants' courses will take place three times a year. Lieutenants who do not wish to specialise will also be allowed to go through a course at Greenwich when their services can be spared.

327. Junior Lieutenant, &c., Training in Navigation.-When practicable, arrangements are to be made for one junior Lieutenant or Sub-Lieutenant to be taken partially off watchkeeping (keeping a dog or morning watch) so as to work with the Navigating Officer for 10 working days under way, but not necessarily all in one trip.

The officer thus told off is to be on deck when coasting, making the land, going in and out of harbour, &c., and is to be in every way encouraged to get an insight into navigating duties. If, at the end of the 10 days, the Captain is satisfied with his work, he is to be relieved, and another officer told off for this duty. A special report is then to be forwarded to the Admiralty that the course has been duly performed by the officer.

328. Midshipmen, Training afloat.- On leaving the training cruiser, Midshipmen will serve for a minimum of three years at sea in that rank, during


which period they will work with the executive officer for training in officers, duties and in seamanship, and with the specialist officers for training and instruction in gunnery, torpedo navigation and pilotage, and engineering.

2. The instruction is to be mainly practical, but facilities are to be afforded for voluntary study as indicated in Appendix X., Part I. (26).

The instruction is always to be given by officers. This work is never to be delegated to seaman instructors.

3. The general system of instruction to be followed is indicated in Appendix X., Part I. In regard to details, however, the Commanding Officer is to exercise his discretion in directing the work of the Midshipmen, the object being to secure that when the Midshipman's sea service as such is completed he will be fit, without further instruction, to perform satisfactorily all the duties which may be required at sea of a Sub-Lieutenant or Lieutenant, having a competent practical knowledge not only of seamanship and the general duties of an officer, but also of gunnery, torpedo, engineering, and navigation.

4. It is highly important that the Midshipmen should learn early to assume. the habit of responsibility which is essential to the formation of their character. as naval officers. Officers in charge of Midshipmen are accordingly to endeavour to test their fitness for responsibility, and should not hesitate to delegate responsible duties whenever possible, at the same time watching the manner in which the Midshipman acquits himself.

329. Midshipmen are not to be employed more than is necessary on the ship's clerical work, such as writing up engineering, gunnery, and torpedo logs, or filling in returns.


330. Knowledge as to Fittings of Ship.- Before a ship is commissioned the Engineer Officer, the Second Engineer Officer, and such other of the engineer officers as the Admiralty may direct, are to be examined by the Engineer Rear-Admiral at the port to which the ship is attached, to ascertain that each has a competent knowledge of such details of the ship as are under his charge, such as valves, cocks, water-tight doors, hatches, sluices, the system of flooding and ventilating, and the particulars of the pumping arrangements; and if they have, they are to be granted a certificate on form S. 451.

2. If subsequently appointed, these officers are to be examined by the Engineer Captain attached to the fleet to which the ship belongs. In fleets where no Engineer Captain is borne they are to be examined by the Engineer Officer of the flag-ship, and in the case of Destroyer Flotillas, by the Engineer Commander borne in the flotilla depôt ship for Torpedo Boat Destroyers and Torpedo Boats.

In these cases the examination should be applied for within three months of the officer being appointed.

3. The certificates are in all cases to be in duplicate, one copy being for the candidate and the other being dealt with as follows:

  1. In the case of an officer examined before a ship commissions in accordance with clause 1, the duplicate is to be retained by the Commander-in-Chief at the port for local record.
  2. In the case of an officer examined after the ship commissions, under clause 2, the duplicate is to be retained by the Commander-in-Chief of the fleet to which the ship belongs. When the ship leaves the fleet it is to be forwarded to the Commander-in-Chief of the fleet or port to which she is transferred.


331. Instruction in Whitehead, &c.- All engineer officers, unless circumstances prevent it, are to undergo a course of instruction in the Whitehead and electric light apparatus, and hydraulic machinery as applied to working heavy guns.

2. There will be four such courses during the year on board the " Vernon " and " Excellent " at dates arranged by the Admiralty.

Details of the course and examinations will be found in the " Courses of Instruction in Gunnery and Torpedo."

3. Should an officer fail to pass, the time under instruction will count as half pay time only, though he will receive full pay.


332. Course for Surgeons.- The examination for Staff Surgeon will be preceded by a six months' course of instruction, as detailed in Appendix X., Part VII., which is to be taken when a Surgeon has between 4j and 6j years' seniority, and as near the date when the latter period is completed as the exigencies of the Service admit. The courses will take place twice a year.

333. Course for Senior Medical Officers.- Medical officers of not less than 14 years' seniority will be allowed to undergo a post-graduate course of three months' duration if the exigencies of the Service permit. During this course the medical officers will be borne on ships' books for full pay. They will be accommodated at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich, and will be under the general control of the President. They will come under the ordinary regulations (Chapter XL.) in respect of travelling expenses to and from the College; the fees for each course, not exceeding 251., will be paid by the Admiralty on the production of vouchers at the end of the course. Medical officers will be required to produce separate certificates of efficient attendance.

2. This course is designed to afford senior medical officers the opportunity of refreshing their general knowledge of surgery and medicine, and of making themselves familiar with modern improvements. There will not be any fixed syllabus of instruction or examination, but arrangements will be made in each case by the medical officer in charge of studies at Greenwich to meet individual requirements, and a report will be made by this officer to the Medical Director General at the close of the course.

334. Voluntary Courses of instruction of about six weeks' duration are held at the naval hospitals at the three home ports, for the benefit of medical officers of ships and naval establishments at these ports, and every facility is to be afforded to such officers (especially those at the naval barracks) for the study and practice of bacteriology, clinical pathology, skiagraphy, &c., in the hospital laboratories, a report from the Surgeon-General of the hospital being transmitted to the Admiralty through the Commander-in-Chief at the close of each course.


335. Instruction in Small Arms.- In addition to instruction in their professional duties (Article 1338, clause 2), Assistant Clerks are to undergo a short course of instruction in revolver and sword exercise and in rifle drill, including the simpler movements in squad and company drill, and a note is to be added to the certificate of service,, form S. 450, stating whether the Assistant Clerk has satisfactorily qualified therein.


The instruction is to continue until the results are certified to be satisfactory, but will cease to be obligatory in the case of officers who entered the Service prior to the year 1909, after they have passed their intermediate examination.

2. In Boats.- Clerks and Assistant Clerks are also to be practised in rowing and sailing boats as opportunities offer.


336. Qualification in Navigation.- Warrant officers who desire to qualify in navigating duties must first pass the educational examination laid down in Appendix X., Part XII. The names of warrant officers who pass the educational examination will be placed upon a list from which a final selection will be made of the officers to be appointed to the school of navigation.

2. Those who fail to pass the educational examination will be allowed a second trial. Should any officer fail a second time, no further trial will be allowed.

3. Warrant officers appointed to the navigation school will go through a three months' course in pilotage and coastal navigation. An examination will be held at its conclusion, and the names of the most promising officers will be noted.

4. Officers qualified will have the letters P.N. placed against their names in the Navy List, and will receive rates of extra pay, when employed, as laid down in Appendix I.

5. Warrant officers who have qualified in navigation will be required to go through a re-qualifying course of about one month's duration at intervals of not more than five years.

6. Warrant officers who have qualified or re-qualified at the navigation school since it was established in 1903 will generally be held to have re-qualified if they have served in appointments for navigating duties or in command of small vessels, and thereafter it will not be necessary for them to re-qualify until five years have elapsed since the termination of such appointments. The case of each officer will, however, be considered on its merits by the Captain of the navigation school.

337. Qualifying Course for Gunner and Boatswain.- Before a candidate can be examined in gunnery and torpedo for the rank of Gunner, Torpedo Gunner, or Boatswain, he must be qualified as to service and character under Article 300 and must have obtained the certificates required by Articles 301 and 302.

2. He will undergo the courses of instruction as laid down in the printed " Courses of Instruction of Officers and Seamen in the Gunnery and Torpedo Schools," and must obtain certificates of qualification.

3. Allowances.- On passing the final examinations in the gunnery and torpedo schools, candidates for Gunner or Torpedo Gunner will be classed as first or second class for gunnery and torpedo allowances, and they will retain this class during their whole service.

4. Advanced Course.- At the conclusion of the Gunners' course, the most promising men will be selected to undergo an advanced course. Before being selected for this advanced course, candidates must pass an eyesight test, the standard required being 6/6 Snellen. Warrant officers who have passed the advanced course will be distinguished in the Navy List by the symbol . When fully qualified for warrant rank the candidates are to be dealt with as follows :

  1. Petty officers of one year's service in that rating who have qualified for Gunner are to be retained in the gunnery school to await
  2. 93

    promotion. They will be promoted to Acting Gunner as vacancies occur irrespective of their position on the roster.
  3. Leading Seamen qualified for Gunner t are to be sent to sea at once, with the rating of Acting Petty Officer. On completing one year's service in the acting rating and on being confirmed, they will be promoted as vacancies occur.
  4. Other qualified candidates for Gunner or Gunner (T) are to be sent to sea, the Leading Seamen being given the rating of Acting Petty Officer in time to ensure their having served in that capacity for a year before their turn for promotion is expected to arrive.
  5. Passed candidates for Gunner or Torpedo Gunner are to be given the rating of Gunner's Mate or Torpedo Gunner's Mate if not already held by them.
  6. Leading Seamen given the rating of Acting Petty Officer are to be confirmed as Petty Officer at the expiration of 12 months if recommended in all respects for warrant rank. If not so recommended or if found unsuitable for warrant rank at any time before the expiration of 12 months, they are to revert to Leading Seaman, being eligible for subsequent advancement to Petty Officer in the ordinary course.

5. Re-qualification.- All Gunners, Torpedo Gunners, and Boatswains will be required to re-qualify in both gunnery and torpedo as laid down in the " Courses of Instruction."

338. Course for Warrant Telegraphist.- Candidates for Warrant Telegraphist must undergo the course of instruction laid down in the printed " Courses of Instruction of Officers and Seamen in the Gunnery and Torpedo Schools." The candidates will be selected by the Captain of the " Vernon " from a- roster of those who are eligible under the conditions in Articles 300 and 304. The names of eligible men recommended for the course are to be forwarded to the Commanding Officer of the " Vernon " together with copies of their service certificates and wireless telegraphy history sheets.

339. Carpenter's knowledge of Fittings.- The officer appointed to the ship in charge of carpenter's duties is to be examined to ascertain if he has a thoroughly competent knowledge of such details of the ship as are placed in his charge, such as the construction of the ship, watertight doors, hatches, sluices, the system of flooding and ventilating, and the pumping arrangements. If he is appointed to the ship while she is building, the examination is to be held before the ship is commissioned, or on first arrival at a dockyard in the case of those built by contractors.

In all other cases the examination is to be held within six months from the date of joining.

Whenever possible the examination is to be conducted by dockyard officers, whether at home or abroad, but when no opportunity for this occurs the fact is to be reported to the Commander-in-Chief, or Senior Officer, who will issue directions for the Carpenter of the senior ship, assisted by another Carpenter, to examine the officer in the presence of his Captain or some other officer not below the rank of Lieutenant.

On passing the examination he will be granted a certificate on form S. 451a.


340. Study Abroad.- Naval officers of or below the actual or relative rank of Commander, and marine officers, who are desirous of qualifying for Interpreter in any of the languages mentioned in Article 341, clause 3, and officers


holding the actual rank of Captain, may, with the permission of the Admiralty, proceed to the Continent on full pay, for the period specified in clause 6, for the purpose of studying the language selected, of which they will be required to possess an adequate preliminary knowledge (see clause 5).

2. Japanese.- The special arrangements laid down as regards the study of the Japanese language will be found in Article 343, and officers serving on the China station should be encouraged to acquire a knowledge of the language.

3. Pay and Time.- Full pay and time will be allowed for the period of study abroad, but candidates will not receive any allowance for victuals nor any other allowances in addition to full pay. '

4. The privilege of studying abroad will not be granted to any officer more than once for the same language, except when re-qualifying for Interpreter, and not more than 20 officers of all grades will be allowed to be abroad for study on full pay at the same time.

5. Scheme of Study.- Before proceeding abroad, candidates will be required to submit a scheme of study, stating where they intend to reside, and what facilities the place of residence affords for the study of the language. Officers will further be required either to satisfy the Civil Service Commissioners that they possess an adequate preliminary knowledge of the language which they have selected, or, should they have studied the language at the Royal Naval College, to obtain a certificate to the same effect from the authorities of the Royal Naval College, Greenwich. In arranging for study abroad, officers should bear in mind the dates at which the passing examinations for the grade of Interpreter are held by the Civil Service Commissioners. Candidates will be expected, as far as possible, to present themselves for the preliminary test before the Civil Service Commissioners at the times when the quarterly examination for the grade of Interpreter is held.

6. Gratuities.- To meet the outlay to which officers may be put by residence abroad, gratuities according to the following scale will be paid, to those who succeed in qualifying after residence abroad on full pay under the foregoing conditions, for the periods specified in the table or for a substantial proportion thereof:


Duration of Residence Abroad

Gratuity on Qualifying.

Language. For Higher Standard Interpreter) For Lower Standard (Acting Interpreter). Higher Standard (Interpreter). Lower Standard (Acting Interpreter)
  Months Months
Japanese 12* 6 200 100
Russian 9 6 150 75





Modern Greek






* In special cases the period in Japan may be extended to two years.

The gratuity of 200. is to be paid only to those who study in Japan for two years ; the gratuity for those who study for one year only being 100. The 100. gratuity is to be paid in instalments of 50. at the end of the first and second six months, subject to the candidate passing the test prescribed in Article 343 and in Appendix X., Part XI., on each occasion: the additional 100. for those who remain for two years being paid on finally passing for the Higher Standard.


7. Study interrupted.- When an officer who has been given leave to study abroad in order to qualify as an interpreter is, for reasons approved by the Admiralty, unable to complete the authorised period of residence abroad, but succeeds in passing the prescribed examination, he may be repaid his actual outlay in travelling expenses and tuition fees up to a sum not exceeding the gratuity for which he would have been eligible if he had completed the authorised period of residence.

8. Qualification without study abroad.- In addition to the number allowed to study abroad the Admiralty may permit a certain number (not exceeding five in any one year) to take lessons in a foreign language, and if they pass the prescribed examination they may be reimbursed the expenses actually incurred by them in travelling to obtain tuition and in tuition fees, but the sum so payable shall not exceed the amount of the gratuity for which they would have been eligible on passing for the lower standard, and shall not in any case exceed 351.

No officer will be eligible to receive any payment under this clause who does not obtain the sanction of the Admiralty before commencing his studies.

9. Refund if retired within three years.- Should an officer who has qualified for Interpreter under the above conditions be permitted to retire, resign, or withdraw within three years from the date of passing for Interpreter, he will be required to refund the difference between the full and half pay received by him during his period of study abroad and the gratuity awarded on passing, or such proportion of both amounts as the Admiralty may decide.

In the case of an officer permitted to study Chinese or Japanese, he may also, at the discretion of the Admiralty, be required to refund his passage expenses and the special allowances for lodging and provisions.

341. Examination for Interpreter.- Naval officers of or below the actual or relative rank of Commander,- and marine officers, who are desirous of qualifying for Interpreter, may offer themselves as candidates for examination. (See Appendix X., Part X.)

2. Candidates, if on full pay, are to apply through their Captains, stating the language in which they wish to be examined; if on half pay, their applications should be addressed direct to the Secretary of the Admiralty.

The application should state whether the officer desires, before presenting himself for examination, to take advantage of the regulations in Article 340, as to residence in the foreign country concerned.

3. Allowances.-Officers who pass successfully will be eligible for employment as Interpreters or Acting Interpreters, according to the standard reached by them. When appointed, service as Interpreters will be added to their other duties as officers of the ship and they will receive additional pay as shown in the following tables:


Additional pay while employed

  As Interpreter
per diem.
As Acting Interpreter
per diem.
  s. d. s. d.

2. 6.





Additional pay while employed


As Interpreter,
per diem.
Acting Interpreter
per diem.
  s. d. s. d.

2s. 0d.

1s. 0d.

Modern Greek

1s. 6d.



Officers appointed as Interpreters or Acting Interpreters will receive this additional pay concurrently with any other allowances attaching to their appointment, e.g., senior, gunnery, torpedo or navigating allowances to Lieutenants.

4. Provisional Examination.- Officers when serving abroad may be permitted to pass a provisional examination to be conducted on board a Flag or Senior Officer's ship in the presence of a Captain and Naval Instructor, by an experienced teacher of the language selected, 'or by an officer who .has passed in it for Interpreter.

The successful candidate is to be granted a .certificate, and will be eligible to act as Interpreter should his services be required. He will be entitled to the additional pay as Acting Interpreter for any period during which he may be actually employed. He will not, however, be considered as qualified unless within a reasonable period after his return to England he passes the usual examination before the Civil Service Commissioners.

All provisional examinations and appointments are to be reported at once to the Admiralty.

5. Re-qualification.- Officers on the list of Interpreters will be required to re-qualify every five years in so far as the convenience of the Service may admit, and, prior to re-examination, they may. be' allowed full pay during study abroad for a period not exceeding one month, such period to count as " service,

but no gratuity or other allowance will be payable in respect of such re-qualification.

342. Interpreters' Appointments.- Interpreters qualified in the languages commonly spoken within the command, will be appointed to flag-ships and to such other ships as the Admiralty may direct.

In any case in which it is considered necessary by the Captain that a duly qualified officer serving on board should be appointed as Interpreter or as Acting Interpreter, a representation to that effect should be made through the Commander-in-Chief to the Admiralty.

An Interpreter qualified in French or German will be allowed in each ship carrying Midshipmen.

2. Instruction of Junior Officers.- Interpreters and Acting Interpreters who from time to time undertake the instruction of junior officers in French and German may be paid 5s. for each lesson given to classes of junior officers on board His Majesty's ships, provided the number of officers under instruction


is not less than four. Such lessons, of one hour each, are not to exceed four a week.

In exceptional cases, where circumstances do not admit of a class of four junior officers being formed; the question of payment of the allowance is to be submitted to the Admiralty for special consideration, with a report of the circumstances which rendered it impossible to form a larger class.

Instruction in any other languages may be given, subject to the approval of the Admiralty.

The names of the officers instructed on each occasion are to appear on the vouchers for payments.

3. A winner of the Ryder prize may be employed as an instructor when no Interpreter is available, and may receive the pay of an Acting Interpreter.

4. The Interpreter of the flag-ship, or of such ship as the Senior Officer may appoint, should direct the education in foreign languages of the junior officer on the station.

345. Japanese Language.- The following special arrangements have been laid down as regards the Japanese language.

2. Officers on the station should be encouraged to acquire a knowledge of the language, those who pass a preliminary test and apply for further opportunity for study being, with the approval of the Commander-in-Chief, discharged to the shore, in order to continue the study of the language on the ship leaving the station. The Commander-in-Chief on the station will arrange for the preliminary test.

3. Officers may also be allowed to proceed to Japan to study the language after passing a preliminary test examination at home, arrangements for which will be carried out at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich.

4. The period of residence allowable is as shown in the table in Article 340, clause 6. While studying in Japan officers will receive full pay, and a consolidated allowance of 1501. a year in lieu of lodging and provision allowances.

5. Officers will be tested at the end of six months', twelve months' and two years' study, in accordance with the instructions in Appendix X., Part XI.

6. Officers granted permission to proceed from England to study in Japan will be sent out in one of His Majesty's ships, or by packet, at the discretion of the Admiralty, and will be allowed full pay from the date of appointment, the period allowed for residence abroad to be reckoned from the date of arrival in Japan. Officers to whom this permission is granted are to be prepared to be appointed to any ship without returning to England.

7. Passage to England will be provided for officers who complete a term of study in Japan.

8. A Japanese teacher will be engaged at Wei-hai-wei with a view to assisting officers to study the language. He will be always in his room at certain hours in the day, and ready to give lessons to any officers willing to come to him. There will be no compulsory examination at the end of a course of lessons.

344. Purchase of Foreign Literature.- A sum not exceeding five pounds per annum may be spent by the commanding officer of every ship bearing junior officers under instruction prior to passing for Lieutenant upon the purchase of such literature for use in the study of foreign languages as may be deemed suitable and necessary.

2. The allowance is to be taken on credit by each ship quarterly in advance, and care is to be taken that it is expended to the greatest advantage, having regard to the numbers and proficiency of the junior officers.


345. Prizes to Midshipmen.- Prizes for proficiency in foreign languages will be offered to Midshipmen for competition at each examination for the rank of Lieutenant, as laid down in Appendix X., Part II. (10).

346. Oriental Languages, Allowances, &c.- Officers serving on board His Majesty's ships on the East Indies station and in the Red Sea, who so desire, will be examined, and, if found qualified to act as Interpreters by the lower standard test in oriental languages, will be granted the following allowances, the moonshee allowance being payable on passing, and the Interpreter's allowance being payable only when appointed by the Admiralty to act in that capacity.

  Moonshee Allowance on passing. Interpreter's Allowance per Mensem on Appointment.
  Rupees. Rupees.
For Swahili 180 75
For Arabic 300 75
For Hindustani and Persian (two languages) 360 75
For Hindustani (revised test) 180 50
For Persian 180 50

2. Gratuities, &c.- The payments of the gratuities and Interpreters' allowances, when authorised, are to be made by the accountant officer on separate vouchers, and brought to account under " Secretary of State for India," except in cases where they are chargeable to naval funds, viz. :

  1. Swahili.
  2. Interpreter's allowances in the Cape command ;
  3. When the ship is outside Indian waters.

3. In the case of Hindustani the payments are also chargeable to naval funds, with the exception of the allowance to the Interpreter at the Royal Naval Depot, Bombay, which is chargeable to the Indian Government. The Interpreter's allowance will be payable only at the Royal Naval Depôt, Bombay, and to officers in ships in the Persian Gulf, but the moonshee gratuity will be paid to officers belonging to any ships on the East Indies station who qualify in that language.

4. The Interpreter's allowances, when authorised, are .to commence from the date of the certificate of qualification if there is a vacancy in the ship in which the officer is borne, and if not, from the date of a vacancy, or of appointment to a ship in which a vacancy exists. They are to cease on the ship passing the prescribed limits within which the allowance is payable, on passage home, or when the officer is invalided, paid off, or discharged for passage to England.

5. No ship will be allowed more than one Interpreter in each language, and should an officer draw an allowance of Rs. 75 a month as Interpreter in Arabic or Persian and Hindustani (two languages), the allowance will not be admissible to any other officer in the vessel as Interpreter.

6. Qualifications in Swahili will be tested before a board of examiners at Zanzibar or Aden, or provisionally before two or more officers of His Majesty's ships, who have already qualified in that language, in the presence of a Captain, who will attest the certificate ; but officers so provisionally passed are to be again examined by a duly authorised civil board as soon as an opportunity presents itself. The standard of Swahili is purely colloquial.

7. Examinations in Arabic, Persian and Hindustani will be held by the sanction of the Indian Government at any place on the East Indies station


where a duly qualified board. of officers, or one officer fully capable of conducting the examination, can be found ; but the report of the committee passing the candidates will be sent to the examining board at the nearest Presidency town.

Candidates will be required to pass in Persian, or in Hindustani, by the lower standard, or a colloquial examination in Arabic according to the following test :

  1. Conversing with the examiner, or in his presence with persons selected by him, with fluency and such correctness of expression as to be at once intelligible;
  2. Writing with accuracy a translation into Arabic in the English character of a paper of English sentences based on subjects in connection with which the candidates might ordinarily be called on to interpret.

8. Examinations in oriental and African languages are also held by the Civil Service Commissioners.

347. May Remain on Station.- Officers qualified in oriental languages when belonging to ships ordered home may be transferred to ships remaining on the station, if not inconvenient to the Service.

2. Re-qualification.- Officers who have left the station three years will be required to re-qualify before re-appointment.


348. General Regulations.- The regulations relating to the examination of officers are issued under the authority of the Admiralty, and are given in the King's Regulations or in the established forms.

Eligibility of Candidates.- Examining officers are, before commencing an examination, to satisfy themselves that the candidate is in all respects eligible by age and service according to the regulations in force on those points, and that. he is able to produce certificates of sobriety and good conduct for the full period of service necessary to qualify him for examination, from the Captain ,or other officers under whose command he has served and especially from the officer under whom he is at the time serving.

Certificates for time on passage in a contract ship, or while borne for pay only, are to be dispensed with, and the Admiralty record of time accepted in lieu.

2. The Commander-in-Chief, or Senior Officer present, shall give the necessary directions for the required examinations to take place, except in the ,cases otherwise specially provided for.

3. Such examinations should be held immediately the qualifying service is completed if the candidate is ready to appear; but if the passing day should fall on a Sunday, the examination is to be postponed till the following day, seniority being allowed from the Sunday.

4, Date of Certificate.- No passing certificate is to be dated prior to the .commencement of the examination ; but if the exigencies of the Service or any ,other cause prevent the examination or provisional examination from being held at the proper time, though the certificate must be dated on the day of passing, the circumstances are to be fully reported to the Admiralty to enable their Lordships to consider whether according to the merits of the case any alteration of .officers' seniority is justifiable.

5. All passing certificates of officers are to be in duplicate unless otherwise ,directed ; one copy is to be forwarded to the Commander-in-Chief for transmission to the Admiralty, and the other is to be given to the officer examined.


349. Documents required.- The Captain of the ship from which a candidate is sent for examination is to be careful that he takes with him certificates of service and of good conduct up to the day of examination, certificates of previous examinations, log books, work books, and all other documents that may be required for the information and inspection of the examining officers.

Clerks who entered as Assistant Clerks prior to the year 1909 on attending the examination for the rank of Paymaster are also to produce proof that they are of the age required, viz., certificate of birth, or declaration thereof made before a magistrate.

350. False Certificates, Penalty.- If any candidate for examination shall knowingly produce false certificates of his age, service, or conduct, as his qualification for examination, he shall thereby be rendered incapable of ever receiving any commission in His Majesty's Navy; and if the falsehood of such certificates shall not be discovered until after lie has obtained promotion, he shall be dismissed from the Navy, whenever it may be discovered, and from whatever rank he may at the time have attained. See 348 (General).


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