Source: Bartholomew's Gazetteer of the British Isle date c 1900
Etymology Of British Place-names
THE following Glossary contains the principal components of
the place-names in the British Isles, and with its aid the derivation of
many names may be ascertained, and something may be learned of the physical
condition of various localities in early times. In the Highlands of Scotland,
Ireland, and Wales, where the names are almost all Gaelic (Cymric), and
in the Lake District where Norse names predominate, less doubt need be
felt as to the correctness of the interpretations than in parts of England
and Scotland where Celts, Romans, Scandinavians, Anglo-Saxons, and Normans
have all had a share in forming the present nomenclature. Many names have
been changed to such an extent that their original form is no longer recognisable,
as is shown by the examples, and some words of different origin and meaning
have become identical in form. In such cases the true derivation of a name
can frequently be ascertained only by finding its earlier forms in old
records. When the name appears to contain the epellation of some permanent
natural object, such as a hill or any part of it, a river, or ford, mistakes
may often be avoided by seeing whether such an object occurs on the map
in the neighbourhood of the place.
ABBREVIATIONS-A.N., Anglo-Norman; A.S., Anglo-Saxon; C.S., Celto-Saxon;
NOTE.-The initial consonant of a Welsh word often changes in composition.
Thus Pont becomes Bont in Pen-y-Bont, Cor becomes Gor in Bangor, and Cader
Cader in Pen-y-Gader. Gaelic words are subject to similar changes.
Ab, Abb (Latin, from Abbas). Ballinab, Milnab.
Aber (Cymric), a confluence, or the mouth of a river; e.g. Aberford,
Abh, Abhain, Amhuinn (Celtic), water. Avonmore, Awn, Owenbeg, Owvane,
Aubwee, Almond, Evan.
Abhall (Celtic), an apple. Aghyowle, Ballyhooly, Balnowlart ; sometimes
an orchard Avabreagh.
Ach, agh, loch, nach, rach, tach, trach, Beach, Gaelic suffixes denoting
" full of," " abounding in."
Achadh (Gaelic), a field. Ardagb, Aghadoe, Awhirk, Auchinleck, Affleck.
Acker (Old Norse), open country, untitled land.
Aebhinn (Gaelic), delightful. Rathevin, Drumeevin.
AcRach (Gaelic), an assembly, a cattle fair. Enagh, Nenagh, Ballineanig,
Aik (Scotch), oak.
Ail, Fail (Old Gaelic) a rock. Allagower, Alleen, Alloa.
Aillse (Gaelic), fairy, elf. Ailsa Craig.
Alrldh, Airle (Gaelic), a shealing, or mountain pasture. Airieglassan.
Airne (Erse), sloe. Killarney, Magherarny.
Alt (Gaelic), a house site. Attidermot Attivally Aith.
Alainn, Aluinn, Allan (Gaelic), bright, beautiful. Moyallan allan, Derraulin.
All (Gaelic), white; Al-non, white water. Latinised into alanna. Hence
Ain, Alan, Ellen, Lune.
Allt, Aid, Auld, Ault (Gaelic), a stream. Garvald, Altaggart Burn, Old
Water of Cluden.
Alltan (Gaelic), a little stream, brook.
Alt (Erse), Allt (Welsh), a height, cliff: Altavilla, Tonanilt, Builth.
An (Gaelic), contracted form of Abhulnn, q.v.
An (Gaelic), the. Gen., na; plur., non.
An, een, og, oc, net, can, diminutive suffixes. Lickny, Killasnet, Briancan,
Ar (Gaelic), slow; Arw (Celtic), violent. Thus Aire, Arre, Arrow, &c.,
are derived from these roots.
Aran (Celtic), an alp.
Arbhar (Celtic), corn. Knockanarroor, Clonarrow.
Ard (Celtic), high, a height. Ardmore, Armagh, Airdrie, Ardrossan.
Ara, Erik (Teutonic), place, dwelling, house. Am, Chiltern, Whithorn.
Aros (Gaelic), a house, dwelling, abode. Arisaig.
Asc Askr (Old Norse), an ash. Ascaig Ascog
Ath (Gaelic), a ford. Athnagar, Aghanlugha, Athole.
Atta (Gaelic), from fads, long
Auchter (Gaelic), from uachdar, q.v., the summit, upper.
Auchterarder. Other form : Ochter.
Ault (Gaelic). Another form of Allt, q .v.
Avon (Celtic), a river. Spelt afon in Welsh. Otherforms: Evan, Ive,
Anne, Inney, &c. See ABH.
Ay (Scandinavian), an island. See A.
Ayr (Norse), from eyrr, the beach.
Bach, Bychan (Welsh), little. Fem., fach, fechan.
Badan (Gaelic), grove clump, thicket. Badanach, abounding in groves,
Badhun (Erse), a fenced enclosure. Bawn, Bavan.
Bade (Gaelic), house, town. Ballyleague, Ballaboy, Ballantrae, Balgownie.
Bala ( Welsh), effluence of a river from a lake.
Balder (A.S.), name of a god, and a personal name; e.g. Balderton.
Balla (Gaelic), from baile, an abode.
Bamh (Erse), a sucking pig. Drumbonniff, Bannow.
Ban Erse), lea. Bawnanattin, Banoge, Cranavaneen.
Ban Gaelic), white. Loughbawn, Carrickbaun.
Ban, Bar ( Welsh), Barr (Gaelic), a hill-top. Also her; e.g. Berwyn,
Tal-y-fan, Barglass. Also from bear, the crop which the land bears; e.g,:
Bard (Norse), extremity, point.
Barrow (A.S.), from beorh, a hill. Other forms : borough, berg berry;
e.g. Ingleborough Queensberry.
Bass (Gaelic), from bathais, forehead.
Battle. See BOTL.
Beach (Gaelic), a bee. Cornamagh, Rathnamagh.
Bealach (Gaelic), a road, pass. Ballaghboy, Ballinvally, Baltinglass,
Balloch, Loch Valley.
Beann, Beinn (Gaelic), a hill-top. Bengore, Bannagh, Ben Nevis. Akin
to Welsh Pen.
Bearnn (Gaelic), a gap, breach. Ballynaberny, Barnes.
Beck (Scandinavian), a brook. Anotherform: batch.
Bedd (Welsh), a grave.
Beg (Gaelic), little. Awbeg, Carrickbeg. Akin to Welsh bach.
Belth (Gaelic), a birch-tree. Behagh Aghaveagh Kilbaha, Dalbeattie,
Largvey. Welsh, Bedw; Penbeddw.
Bel (Gaelic), a mouth entrance; sometimes a ford. Belfast, Belleek,
Bel (Celtic), name of a god; e.g. Belau, Baal Hills.
Ber (Gaelic), corruption of bir or bior=prickle, spit, point.
Bettws (Welsh), corruption of English bede-house.
Bhar, Bhre (Gaelic), collective suffixes.
Big (Norse), from Bygg, barley. Biggar.
Bigging (A S.), from Byggan, to build, hence a dwelling.
Blle (Gaelic), an old tree, a sacred tree. Ringville, Altavilla.
Blor (Old Gaelic), well, water, fountain. Bere, Bervie.
Blad (Gaelic), an enormous mouth.
Blaen (Welsh), a summit. Plural, Blaenau.
Blair (Gaelic), a field. Blairgowan, Blawrainy. In Ireland found only
to the diminutive, Blarney.
Bo (Gaelic), a cow. Aghaboe Annamoe, Bowling.
Bo, Bol, Bold (Norse), a dwelling. Newbold.
Bod (Cymric), a house. Another form: bos. Bodmin, Hafod, Bosher.
Bog (Gaelic), soft, miry, damp.
Bon, Bonn (Gaelic), from bun q.v.
Bor, Bore (O.E. and Swedish), from bord, a table, board.
Borg (Danish), a fort, shelter-place, burgh.
Borough (A.S.), from beorgan, to shelter. An earthwork, and hence a
fortified town. Otherforms: bury, brough, burgh, and barrow.
Bost (Norse), from bolstadr, a farm-house or dwelling. Carbost, Bousta.
Bothan (Gaelic), a hut, house. Bochastle,
Boil (A.S.), a dwelling. Newbottle Newbattle, Bootle.
Bradan (Gaelic), a salmon. Loughbraddan.
Braghad (Gaelic), throat, gorge. Braid, Bradoge.
Braich (Welsh), an arm.
Braigh, Bread, Brae (Gaelic), the top, summit, upper part. Breadalbane,
Bran (Gaelic), from braon, a drop, drizzling rain.
Bre (Celtic), a promontory; eg. Bredon.
Breac (Gaelic), a trout. Bealanbrack, Altnabreac.
Breac, Brac (Gaelic), spotted, piebald.
Brl (Celtic), hill. Brigown, Bray. Akin to Braigh.
Bro (Celtic), a district; e.g. Pembroke.
Broc (O.E.), a badger. Clonbrock, Brockra, Broxburn.
Bron (Welsh), a breast, slope.
Broom (Gaelic), from braon, drizzling rain. Also (O.E.) brom=broom.
Brugh (Erse), a palace, or important house. Bruree, Bruce, Bryan, Bruff,
Brough. Akin to Borg and Burgh.
Bryn (Welsh), a brow, a ridge; e.g. Brandon, Birnwood, Braintree, Brinton.
Buachalle (Gaelic), a cow-herd. Bowhill.
Buidhe (Gaelic), yellow. Athboy, Bellanaby, Dunmanway, Benwee, Loch
Buinne (Gaelic), a wave, flood. Boyne, Cloonabunny.
Bun (Gaelic), foot or mouth. Bundoran, Buncrana.
Burgh (Teutonic), a fortified place, a town.
Burn (Gaelic), a stream.
Bwlch (Welsh), a mountain pass.
By, Byr (Scandinavian), a dwelling-place. Other forms: here, beer, and
bear; e.g. Aylesbere, Beer Alston, Beardon, Bearhaven, Whitby, Duncansbay.
Cabhan (Gaelic), a hollow. Cavan, Cavens, Cowan; sometimes a round bare
hill, Cavanaleck, Cavanagh.
Cider ( Welsh), a seat.
Caeln (Gaelic), beautiful. Killykeen, Drumquin.
Caer (Welsh), connected with castra, or the Gaelic cathair, a fortress.
Another form : car ; e.g. Caernarvon, the fort opposite Man (Anglesea),
Cailleach (Gaelic), a nun, old woman. Calliaghstown.
Cairn, Carn (Gaelic), Carn, Carnedd ( Welsh), heap of stones, rocky
mound. Carnlea, Carron, Cairntoul.
Caiseal (Gaelic), a circular stone fort. Ballycastle, Cashel.
Caisle (Gaelic), a small inlet. Cashla Bay, Cashleen.
Calthair (Celtic), four. Carlow, Sanquhar, Cramond
Cal (Gaelic), from coille, wood.
Cala (Gaelic), a ferry, a landing-place. Probably akin to caol, cael,
kyle. Templeachally, Calanafersy.
Calder (Gaelic), from coille dur, wooded river.
Cam (Celtic), crooked. Cumnock, Roscam, Camelon.
Camus (Gaelic), bay, creek; connected with Cam. Cambusnethan.
Caol (Gaelic), narrow, a strait. Other and more usual form: Kyle. Caolisport
or Killisport, Kyles of Bute.
Capall (Latin), from caballus, a horse. Gortnacapul, Capplegill.
Car (Gaelic), a turn, twist ; crooked, bending. Also another form of
Carcach (Erse), a marsh. Cork, Curkish.
Careg ( Welsh), a rock or stone. Another form: cerrig.
Carn. See CAIRN.
Carrach (Gaelic), rough. Slieve Corragh.
Carraig Carra, Carrick (Gaelic), headland, cliff, crag, rock. Carrigafoyle,
Craigavad, Curgin, Carhaen, Crane.
Corse (Norse), low alluvial land along a river.
Cath (Gaelic). Other form of Caer, q.v.
Cath, Cad (Gaelic), a battle, struggle.
Cathair (Gaelic), a stone fort, originally a city. Caher.
Can (Welsh), a hollow.
Could (Norse), cold.
Ceanannus (Gaelic), head, abode. Modified by the English to Kenlis and
then contracted to Kells.
Ceann (Gaelic), head, top. Cannafahy Kanturk, Kinsale, Kenbane, Kenmare,
Kintyre, Kent, Kencot.
Ceapach (Erse), a plot of ground. Cappoquin, Cappamore.
Cefu ( Welsh), a ridge; e.g. Chevin, Keynton, Chevy Chase, Cheviot.
Ceim (Gaelic), a step pass. Cairn, Keam, Cushcam.
Char, or Chor, a suffix denoting a collection. Cranagher.
Chart, a dense part of a forest. Another form : Kart.
Chester (Saxon), from the Latin castra, a camp. It occurs also as cester
and caster, and in Wroxeter, Exeter, &e.
Chipping (A.S.), from ceapian, to buy; e.g. Chepstow, Chippingham.
CH (Welsh), a cell, recess.
Cill (Gaelic), a cell, burying-ground, church. See KILL.
Clach Cloch (Gaelic), a stone. Erse, clogh. See CLOCH.
Clachan (Gaelic), stones, hamlet.
Class (Gaelic), a trench. Chashanaffrin, Classagh, Clashmack, Cleish.
Clar (Erse), a board, plain. Clare, Clarbane, Claragh.
Clere (,A.N.), a royal or episcopal residence on a high hill.
Clith Gaelic), strong; e.g. Clwyd, Clydach.
Cloch (Gaelic), a stone. Cloghabally, Aughnacloy, Cloughmore, Arklow.
Clough (Erse), from cloch, a stone; e.g. Claughton.
Cluain (Gaelic), a meadow. Clonmel, Clintycracken, Clane, Cloncaird,
Clyn (Gaelic), from claen, squinting, hill-slope. Clyne.
Cnoc (Gaelic), a hill, knoll, eminence, mound. Other and usual form:
Coat (Welsh), from coed, a wood. Also from Gaelic coite, a hut.
Coch (Welsh), red. Fem., Goch.
Coed (Celtic), a wood. This word occurs in Cotswold, Chat Moss, Catlow,
Coileach-graeigh (Gaelic), cock of the heath, i.e, grouse; Cearc, a
hen. Cronacarkfree, Coolkirky, Glenagark.
Collie (Gaelic), a wood. Crunkill, Kilnamanagh. Kylemore, Cuiltybo,
Cults, Cullycapple, Kiltyclogh, Kelty.
Col, Latin culmen; e.g. Colwyn.
Colonia (Latin), a colony; e.g. Colne, Lincoln.
Comar, Como Cum, Cumber (Gaelic), confluence, meetingplace; Cymmer (Welsh).
See also COMHRAC.
Combe (Celto-Saxon), a bowl-shaped valley. In Welsh, cwm; e.g., Compton,
Gomshall, Commaun, Cummeen.
Comhrac (Gaelic), a meeting of rivers, roads, men in battle, &c.,
Cong (Erse), a narrow neck, narrows of a river, small channel.
Cop (Saxon), a head; (Celtic), a hollow, cup.
Cor (Gaelic), a round hill. Corbeagh, Corrog, Corran.
Cor (Welsh), a choir, church; e.g. Bangor-high choir.
Corrie (Gaelic), from coire, a cauldron, dell, ravine. Corra Linn, Corrour.
Cons Welsh), a bog.
Cote (Welsh), a mud cottage. Plural, coton.
Craebh (Gaelic), a branch, or a wide-spreading tree. Derrycreevy, Crevagh,
Craig (Gaelic), a rock; creagach, rocky.
Cri (Gaelic), from crioch, a boundary, frontier.
Crib (Welsh), a crest.
Crick (Gaelic), from Gaelic carraig, a crag.
Croagh (Gaelic), a hill of a round form. Other forms: Cruach, croch,
crock. See CRUACH.
Cron (A.S.), an enclosed field.
Crols, Croch (Gaelic, Croes (Welsh), a cross. Usual form : Cros, cross
roc ; another form of cnoc, a hill.
Crom (Celtic), bent, sloping. Bencrom, Macromha, Croome, Ancrum.
Cron (Gaelic), swarthy, dark-brown. Cronkill, Cruinish.
Cron (Celtic), a round hollow. Cronebane, Cronroe.
Crunch (Gaelic), a rick, stack, hill. Croagh, Crohane, Crookhaven, Kilcruaig,
Ca (Gaelic), a dog. Connor, Convoy, Glasgow.
Cann (Gaelic), a harbour, winding-place. Cooneen, Tincoon, Cuan Sound.
Cull (Celtic), the back, a nook. Coleraine, Culrain, Culloden.
Cuirreagh (Old Gaelic), a marsh. Curraghmore, Curraheen, Currie, a race-course.
The Curragh of Kildare.
Cum. See COMBE.
Cwm. See COMBE.
Daingean (Gaelic), strong, a stronghold. Dangan, Dundanion, Dingle,
Dair (Old Gaelic), an oak. Daar, Derinish, Adare, Darrach, Edendarroch,
Daire, Doire (Gaelic), an oak-wood. Londonderry, Dernagree, Dirrie More.
Dairt (Erse), a heifer. Slieve Dart, Glandarta.
Dal. See DOL.
Dale (Norse), a valley. Sometimes contracted to dal; e.g. Kendal, Arundel,
Damh (Gaelic), an ox. Dawros Head, Inchnadamph.
Dan (Welsh), two. Fem., dwy.
Dealg (Gaelic), a thorn. Moneydollig, Kildellig, Dailly.
Dearg (Gaelic), red. Derg, Darrig, Derrygrath, Ratherrig.
Deas, Deasceart (Gaelic), right hand, south. Ratass, Deskart, Diskirt.
Den (Celto-Saxon), a deep wooded valley, a swine pasture.
Den, Dean, Dene (A.S.), wooded hollow, or valley?
Der (Gaelic). Another form of dur, q. v.
Derry (Gaelic), from daire, doire, an oak-thicket.
Dian (Gaelic), strong. Dinin, Deenagh.
Dobhar, Dutre (Celtic), water. Doory, Dooragh, Bundoran. See also DWR.
Dodd (Nose), a limb; one of lower peaks of a mountain.
Dol (Celtic), a field, dale. As a prefix often corrupted into dal. Dalkeith,
Don. Perhaps connected with Celtic afon. It occurs in names of several
rivers, as Don, Tone, Teign, Teane, &c.
Donn (Celtic), brown, dun. Barnadown.
Droichead (Gaelic), a bridge. Drogheda, Beladrihid, Knockadriet, Kildrought,
Drut (Gaelic), a Druid. Tobernadree, Killadroy.
Druim (Gaelic), a back, ridge. Rathdrum, Dromore, Drummin, Drumderg,
Dubh (Celtic), black. Carrickduff, Doolough, Douglas, Deelish, Clashnamonadee,
Dulas, Dowlas, Diggles.
Dun (Celtic), a fort. Downpatrick, Donegal, Shandon, Dundrum, London,
Dunstable, Ruthin, Dumbarton.
Dur (Celtic), from dwr, water. Other forms: dore, thur, durra
dairan, clover, der and ther-as a prefix also dar and dor ; e.g,.
Rother, Adder, Cheddar, Dorchester, Lauder. From dwr g wyn come Derwent
and its contractions-Darwen, Darent, and Dart.
Dyffryn (Welsh), a valley.
Each (Gaelic), from Latin equus, a horse. Aughinish, Russagh, Kinneigh
Eadar (Gaelic), middle, between. Craigadder, Edenagh, Dunadry, Eddrachillis,
Eaglals, Eccle (Gaelic), Eglws (Welsh), from Latin ecclesia, a church.
Eala (Gaelic), a swan. Doonvinalla, Monalla.
Eanach (Gaelic), a watery place. Annaduff, Inchenny, Rathanny.
Eas (Gaelic), a waterfall. Doonass, Ballysadare, Askeaton, Fetteresso,
Easpog (Gaelic), from Latin episcopus, a bishop. Monaspick Killaspy,
Killaspugbrone, Gillespie, Ernespie.
Eigil (A.S.), a mythical archer and hero; e.g. Aylesbury.
Ellean (Gaelic), island. Anotherform: Illaun.
Eo, Eochaill (Celtic), a yew, yew-wood. Mayo, Gleno ; Youghal, Aughall,
Eofer (A.S.), a wild boar; e.g. Evershot, Eversley.
Eorna (Gaelic), barley. Coolnahorna.
Esk, Uisge (Gaelic), water. The word is found in a large variety of
forms, such as Esk, Usk, Ash, Exe, Axe, Ock, Ouse, Ose, Wash, Ease, and
Eudan (Gaelic), forehead. Eden, Edenderry, Edinkillie.
Ey (Scandinavian), an island. Lambay, Dalkey, Ireland's Eye, Lundy,
Walney. See A.
Fach. See BACH.
Fada (Gaelic), long. Knockfadda, Killyfad, Banada, Moffat, Inchfad.
Fhar (Noer), a passage, ferry.
Fair (Norse), from foers sheep Otherform: far.
Fal (Scotch), from faw or fauch, dun, pale red.
Fawr. See MAWR.
Fearn (Gaelic), alder. Fernagh, Glenfarne, Gortnavern.
Fearsad (Old Gaelic), a sandbank. Belfast, Calanafersy.
Fell (Scandinavian), field, a mountain.
Fer (Gaelic), grass. Fearglass, Ferbane, Lissanair.
Fert (Erse), a grave. Clonfert.
Fetter (Gaelic), from fothir, bit of land, field.
Ffordd ( Welsh), a road; e.g. Minffordd.
Fiadh (Gaelic), a deer. Clonea Knoekaneag, Gortnavea.
Field (A.S.) a forest clearing where trees have been felled. Also from
Norse fjeld a mountain or fell; e.g. Dryfield, Scafell.
Fiodh, Fothalr (Celtic), wood, forest. Fecbane, Finnis, Fiddown, Fews,
Flonn, Flnn (Celtic), white. Tullaghfin, Finaway, Fancroft ; sometimes
clear, Finglas, Rosenallis, Phoenix Park, Finlas.
Fiord (Scared.), a fiord or firth. Wexford, Carlingford.
Fir, Feara (Gaelic), men. Fermanagh, Fermoy, Ferintosh.
Fleet, a flowing stream.
Flegg (Norse), flat. Corrupted into fleck; e.g. Fleckney.
Fod (Gaelic), a sod, soil, land. Fodagh, Mullanavode.
Fold (Norse), an enclosure formed by felled trees.
Foun, Fon (Gaelic), land, region.
Force (Norse), a waterfall,
Ford (A.S.), a ford; (Norse), a fiord; e.g, Bideford,
Forrach (Erse), a meeting-place. Farrow, Gortnafurra.
Fors (Norse), a waterfall.
Fothir, For (Gaelic), land.
Fraech (Gaelic), heath. Freaghillaun, Inishfree.
Frea (A.S.), name of a goddess; e.g. Frathorpe, Freasley.
Gabhar (Celtic), goat. Glenagower, Ballynagore, Ardgour.
Gair (Gaelic), from gearr, short. Other form: Gir.
Gall (Celtic), a foreigner. Inchagoill, Donegal, Fingall, Ballinguile.
Garbh, Gar, Garry (Gaelic), rough, rugged, harsh.
Garn (Gaelic), from garadh enclosure, park, garden. Other form : Gart.
Garran (Erse), shrubbery. Garranamanagh, Ballygarrane.
Garrdha (Gaelic), a garden. Garryowen, Ballingarry.
Garth (Norse), a guarded enclosure.
Garth (Norse), enclosed place, farm.
Gate (Scared.), a road • e.g. Reigate, Gatton Jervis Gut,
Gate (Norse), from geit, a goat; sometimes A. S., a door.
Gay (A.S.), a forest clearing, a settlement.
Geal (Gaelic), white. Galvone, Galcussagh.
Gear (Gaelic), short. Castlegar.
Gile (Gaelic), whiteness. Loch Gill, Legilly.
Gill (Norse), a ravine.
Glass (Gaelic), a small stream. Glashaboy, Douglas, Glasnevin.
Glan (Welsh), a bank, shore; e.g. Rhuddlan.
Glas (Gaelic), grey, blue, green.
Glas (Celtic, green greyish. Glaslough, Kilmaglush.
Glas (Celtic) grey, blue, green.
Gleann (Celtic), a glen. Glenamaddy, Glandine, Glin.
Glen (Gaelic), from gleann, dale, valley.
Gleoir (Erse), brightness, clearness. Glore, Lough Glore.
Glor (Gaelic), a voice, noise. Gloreen, Glashnagloragh.
Gluair (Erse), pure, clear. Glooria, Glowria.
Glyn (Welsh), a glen.
Gobha (Celtic), a smith. Ballygow, Ardgivna, Balgown.
Goe (Norse), form of voe: from gjaa.
Gorm (Gaelic), blue.
Gort (Gaelic), a tilled field. Gortnaclogh, Gartsherrie.
Gower Gowrle (Gaelic), from gabhar, a goat.
Gralgh, Grolgh (Gaelic), a drove, herd. Garrymagree, Slievenagry.
Gralneog (Gaelic), a hedgehog. Inchagreenoge.
Grange (Scotch), a corn farm, or storehouse for grain.
Grian, Green (Gaelic), the sun.
Grianan (Gaelic), a sunny spot, a bower, balcony, palace. Greenane,
Guard. See GARTH.
Gwent (Celtic). Latinised into yenta, a plain; e.g. Winchester Daventry.
Gwy. See Wy.
Gwyn (Welsh), white. Also wyn. Fem., gwen and wen.
Hafod (Welsh), a summer dwelling.
Hal (Celtic), salt; e.g. Haling, Pwllheli.
Ham (A.S.), an enclosure, a home. Other forms: am, ym, and ome.
Har, Her (O.E.), a boundary mark.
Hatch, a hitch-gate at the edge of a forest.
Haugh. See How.
Haugh, Heugh (Scotch), a low-lying meadow on the banks of a stream,
or between hills.
Hawse, the summit of a pass.
Hay (A. S. ), place surrounded by hedge. Older form: haigh.
Helga (A.S.), goddess of the under-world. Perhaps in
Hellifield, Healey, Helagh, and Halliford.
Hithe (A.S.), a wharf.
Hob, Hope, How (Norse), a recess among hills, a shelter.
Holm (Scandinavian), an island, generally in a lake or river.
Holm (A.S.), a river island.
Holt (A.S.), a copse. Often corrupted into hot; e.g. Bagshot, Aldershot.
Hoved (Scandinavian), a head. Howth.
How (Norse), a sepulchral mound, from haugr. Another form : haugh.
Hurst (A.S.), a thick wood.
Inch, Innis, Inish (Celtic), an island, pasture land near water. Inishmacsaint,
Enniskeen, Inchcolm, Inches.
Iar larach (Gaelic), west. Ardaneer, Baurearagh, Clonshire, Irvine.
Inbhear (Gaelic), mouth of a river. Dromineer, Ennereilly, Inverness,
Ing (Scandinavian), a patronymic ending, equivalent to mac in Scotland.
Used as a prefix it denotes a meadow. Ingham.
lochdar (Gaelic), lower. Carroweighter, Broighter, Moy.
Iseal (Celtic), low. Gorteeshall, Athassel. Isel (Welsh), low; is, lower;
Iubhar (Gaelic), a yew tree. Uregare, Ballynure, Newry, Glenure.
Keld (Norse), a spring. Another form: kell ; e.g. Threlkeld.
Ken, Kin (Gaelic). See CEANN.
Kerry (Gaelic), from coire, cauldron, glen. See CORRIE.
Kill, Killle (Gaelic), a common form of cill and coille, q.v.
Kill (Gaelic), from Latin cella, a church. Kildare, Kildellig, Kilmalcolm,
Kilmeny, St. Kilda.
Kip (Gaelic), from ceapan, a stump, block. Kippendavie.
Kirk (Scotch), a church.
Knock (Gaelic), a hill. Knock, Knockfearna, Knockbain.
Knott, a small round hill.
Kyle (Gaelic), a usual form of cool, q.v.
Lad (Norse), a pile or heap. Laid, Ledaig.
Lag, Logan, Logie (Gaelic), a hollow in a hill, cavity. Laggan, Logierieve,
Lugton, Ballinlig, Lagnamuck.
Lagh (Gaelic), a hill. Portlaw, Ballinla, Law.
Laighen (Erse), a broad-pointed spear. Leinster.
Lang (Scotch), long; and for (Gaelic) lann, q.v.
Lann, Lam (Gaelic), Lion (Welsh), enclosure, house, church. Llanbedr
(St. Peter), Lampeter, Lamlash, Long Newton, Lumphanan.
Lax (Scandinavian), a salmon. Leixlip.
Leath (Gaelic), half. Letham, Lavally, Leighlin,
Leathan (Gaelic), broad. Ardlahane, Gortlane, Lethendy.
Legio (Latin), a legion ; e.g. Leicester, Lexdon, Caerleon.
Leim (Gaelic), a leap. Learn, Lemnaroy, Limavady.
Leiter (Gaelic), the side of a hill. Lettermullen, Latteragh, Lettreen,
Leithead (Gaelic), breadth. Moyhelid, Carrighead.
Leven, Lomond (Gaelic), from leamhan, an elm.
Ley (A.S.), a clearing in a wood. Anotherform: leigh.
Liagh (Celtic; Welsh form, Llach), a flat stone. Leag, Leek, Ballyleague,
Lickmolassy, Harlech, Lecroft, Leadburn, Auchinleck.
Liath (Gaelic), grey. Leafin, Rosslea.
Lin (Latin), flax. Coolaleen, Curraghaleen, Linshart.
Linn (Celtic; Welsh form, Llyn), a deep pool; e.g. Lincoln, Linton,
Lios, Lis (Gaelic), a fort, a garden. Listowel, Lissaniska.
Llam ( Welsh), a stride, step.
Lleyn (Welsh), a tongue of land.
Llwyd (Welsh), brown.
Llwyn (Welsh), a grove.
Llyn, Welsh form of Linn, q.v.
Loch (Gaelic; Erse form, Lough), a lake, arm of the sea.
Lod or Lodan (Gaelic), a wet place, swamp, puddle.
Lom (Celtic), bare. Limerick.
Low (A.S.), from Llaw, a mound. Another form: law. See LAGH.
Land (Norse), a sacred grove.
Madadh (Gaelic), a dog, wolf. 'Ballinamaddy, Knockavaddy, Drummodie,
Noel (Gaelic; Welsh form, Noel), bald, bare, a bare hill. Lismoyle,
Mweelahorna, Melrose, Mull.
Maen (Welsh), a stone. Another form: man; e.g. Old Man, Dodman, Manuel.
Maes (Welsh), a field.
Magh (Old Gaelic), a level field, plain. Macosquin, Malton, Mogeely
Armagh, Maghera, The Mearns,
Mam (Gaelic), a large round hill; also, a waste.
Man (Celtic), a district; e.g. Manchester, Isle of Man.
Manach (Latin, Monachus), a monk. Knocknamanagh, Farramanny, Milmannoch.
Mark, a boundary; e.g. Marbury, Merkbury, March. Marchmont,
Mawr (Welsh), great. Anotherform: fawr.
Meadhon (Gaelic), middle. Inishmaan, Kilmaine, Drummenagh, Maidenhead
Mean (Celtic), a heap, hillock. Manlanimirish, Milleenahorna, Mollance.
Muni (Erse), low, marshy ground. Meelick.
Min (Gaelic), smooth, fine. Meeniska, Clomneen, Menlough, Mindrim.
Minster, a monastery.
Moin (Gaelic), a bog, or moor. Monabraher, Ballinamena, Mindork, Moniaive,
Monifieth, Minto. From diminutive Mointin, Moanteen, Mountmellick.
Molt (Gaelic), a wether. Annamult, Brocklamont.
Mon (Gaelic), from monadh, a hill. Moncrieff, Moniemore.
Nor (Celtic), great. Dromore, Benmore.
Mae (Gaelic), a pig. Muckross, Muckloon, Auchtermuchty Mindork.
Maine (Erse), a brake, shrubbery. Monaghan, Moneydorragh, Bunnyconellan,
Leaffony. Allied to Moin.
Muir (Scotch), a moor. Myreside.
Muir (Celtic), the sea. Connemara, Kenmare, Murree, Glamorgan, Morecambe.
Murbhach (Celtic), a marsh by the sea, a salt marsh. Murvagh, Murrey,
Mynydd (Welsh), a bald head, bare mountain, moor. See also Morn.
Nab, a rocky projection.
Nant (Welsh), a valley, stream.
Nos (Erse), a meeting-place. Naas, Nash, Ballynaas.
Naze (Norse), a nose or promontory. Another form: ness..
Ness. See NAZE.
Newydd (Welsh), new.
Noup (Scandinavian), a lofty headland.
Ochter (Gaelic). Anotherform of Auchter, q.v.
Odhar (Gaelic), pale-grey, or light-brown. Ardore, Der-roar, Oramore,
Oc, O (Norse), an island.
Oillean (Gaelic), an island. Illanfad, Roeillaun.
Oir, Oirthear (Gaelic), East. Tullahar, Orior, Oristown.
Or (Scand.), sandy point. Carnsore.
Or (A.S.), from ora, a bank or shore; e.g. Windsor, Oare..
Ord (Gaelic), a form of Ard, q.v.
Over (A.S.), a shore; e.g. Wendover.
Pab, Pap (Norse), priest.
Pant (Welsh), a hollow.
Peel (Celtic), a stronghold.
Pen (Welsh), a head, hence a mountain. Akin to GaelicBeinn.
Pit, Pitten Gaelic), a hollow, croft.
Plas (Welsh), a palace.
Pol, another name for Balder, q.v.,* e.g. Polstead.
Poll (Celtic; Welsh form, Pwll), a pool, small inlet. Pollanass, Poolbeg,
Pouldine, Ballinfoyle, Balhnfile,. Ballinphuill, Polmont.
Pont (Welsh), from Latin. Another form : boat.
Porth (Welsh), a port. Anotherform: borth.
Prest (O.E.), from preost, a priest.
Quoich (Gaelic), from cuach, a cup.
Rath, Rait (Gaelic), a fort, a town.
Re, acre, cumulative suffixes. Craigera, Fodre, Machaire..
Rea (Gaelic), from reidh, smooth, plain, flat land.
Reamhar (Gaelic), thick, fat. Killyrover, Reenrour.
Relthe (Gaelic), a ram. Leamareha, Ralny Hill.
Rhaladr (Welsh), a waterfall.
Rhe, a root found in many languages, and meaning swift,. or to run.
The names of many rivers, as Rea, Rye, Rey,, Ribble &c., are derived
Rhiw (Welsh), a brow or slope; e.g. Ruabon (Rhiwafon).
Rhos (Celtic), a moor; eg,. Rossall, Rusholme.
Rhudd (Welsh), red; e.g. Ruthin=Rhudd-din (Redfort),. Rutland.
Rhyd (Celtic), a ford.
Rhyn (Celtic), a promontory, a point of land running out. to sea. See
Riabhach (Gaelic), greyish, brindled. Aghareagh, Carrickrevagh.
Ridire (Teutonic), Ritter a knight. Kilruddery, Ballyruther
Rigg (Scotch), a ridge, furrow.
Righ (Gaelic), a king. Athenry, Rye Water, Monaree, Dalry.
Rinn (Celtic), a point. Rinanagh, Ringville, Randoon, Rineen, Ringford.
Rim, Rudha, a point, is allied to it.
Rioghan (Gaelic), a queen. Bellarena, Tagharina.
Rithe (A.S.), running water; e.g. Meldreth.
Ron (Gaelic), a seal. Roaninish, Carrignarona, Round-stone Bay.
Ros (Celtic), a promontory, a wood. Muckross, Roscam, Portrush, Roseneath,
Royd (Teutonic), a place that has been ridded of trees.
Ruadh (Celtic), reddish, ruddy. Ruan, Rowan, Cloghroe, Mulroy, Roughan,
Rothes, Roy Bridge, Rutherglen.
Budge (A.S.). From hryeg, a ridge or back. Another form: rigge ; e.g.
Ruimne (Celtic), a marsh; e.g. Romney.
S. A termination for abstract nouns.
Sagart (Latin), Sacerdos, a priest. Kylenasaggart, Taggartsland, Drumhaggart,
Sail, Sealach (Gaelic), Sealh (A.S.), a willow, osier. Corsillagh, Solloghod,
Cloonsellan, Kiltallaghan, Loch Salachie, Sauchie, Auchnashellach.
R1, Sail (Gaelic), brine. Kinsale, Rossalia, Salen.
Sail (A.S.), a stone house, hall; e.g. Kensal.
Sarah (Gaelic), clover, sorrel. Inishmacsaint, Savoch.
Sarn (Welsh), a road.
Scadan (Gaelic), a herring. Balscaddan, Coolscuddan.
Scairbh (Erse), a rough, shallow ford. Scarva, Ballinascarry, Enniskerry.
Scour, Scuir (Gaelic), from sgor, sharp-pointed rock.
Scellig (Erse), a rock in the sea. The Skelligs.
Sceir (Scandinavian), Skjaer a rock. Scar, Skerry, The Skerries, Scarborough.
Scoll (Latin, schola), a school. Tinascolly, Sculleen, Attinaskollia.
Scolb (Gaelic), a twig used in thatching Scullaboge.
Scornach (Gaelic), the wind-pipe. Scornagh, Ballinascorney.
Sean (Gaelic), old. Shandon, Bawnatanavoher, Shambellie.
Set (A.S.), from seta, a settlement. Another form: ster; e.g. Seatoller.
Shaw (A.S.), from sceaga, a wood.
Sheal, $healing (Scandinavian), a hut, or shed. Other form: Shiel.
Shee (Gaelic). 4notherformofsithorsidh, q.v.
Sidh (Gaelic), a fairy hill, a fairy. Mullaghshee, Sheere. vagh, Shane,
Cheek Point, Ballintine, Sidlaw Hills.
Siol (Gaelic), seed, progeny. Shillelagh (sons of Elaigh).
Shall, Scale (Norse, a hut, or shed.
Sliebh (Gaelic). Sliabb, in Scotland, Slieu, in I. of Man, a mountain,
moor. Slievemore, Slamannan.
Sneaght (Gaelic), snow. Slieve Snaght, Drumsnat.
Soke (A.S.), a local court; e.g. Thorp Ie Soken, Soke of Peterborough.
Spital (Norman French), from Latin has pitium, hospital, or place
Srath (Gaelic), soft level meadow land, wide valley. Strabane, Straness,
Sron, Stron (Gaelic), a nose, nose-like hill or promontory. Stronachlachar,
Sruth, Sruthair (Gaelic), a stream. Abbeysbrule, Struell, Struan.
Stack (Norse), a columnar rock. Other forms: stake, stick, stickle.
Stadr (Scandinavian), territory, estate, place. Ulster, Munster, Scrabster.
Staf (Norse), a perpendicular or pillar-like rock.
Staple, a market. Often corrupted into stable.
Sten (Icelandic), a stone. Stennis, Stenton.
Stoke (A.S.), a stockaded place. Another form.. stow.
Stone (A.S. and Norse), Stan, a stone; e.g. Thurston.
Stour, perhaps either an intensitive of Welsh dwr, water, or from the
Gaelic sturr, rough.
Strath (Gaelic). See SRATH.
Stuaic (Gaelic), a pinnacle, rocky point, stack. Stook, Cloghastucan,
Stuc a Chroin.
Sych 1 Welsh), dry; e.g. Sychnant (dry valley).
Taith (Celtic), name of a deity. Perhaps in Tot Hill.
Tal (Welsh), a headland, front.
Tam (Celtic), spreading, quiet; eg: Thames, Teme, Tay.
Tan (Welsh), under.
Tarbh, Tarf (Gaelic), a bull.
Tarn (Norse), from tjorn, a tear, a small mountain lake.
Teach (Celtic), a house. Tincoon, Tiglin, Teebane, Timahoe, Tighnabruaich,
Teambar (Gaelic), pleasant, a hill commanding a wide view. Tara, Towermore,
Thing (Norse), a provincial parliament; e.g. Dingley, Tinwell, Dinsdale,
Dengewell, Tain, Tinwald.
Thor (Scandinavian), Thunor(A.S.), name of a god; eg. Thurscross, Thurlow,
Tursdale, Thurso, Torboll.
Thorpe (Danish), a village. Other forms: throp, trop, trope.
Thwalte (Norse), a forest clearing.
Tigh. See TEACH.
Tilly, Tully (Gaelic), a knoll. A form of Tulach, q.v. Tillycoultry,
Tin, Tinny Tyn (Gaelic), from Teine, fire. Ardentinny.
Tir (Celtic), country, land. Tyrone, Tyrawley, Teermacreeve
Tiw (A.S. ), name of a god; e.g. Tewin, Dewerstone.
Tobar (Gaelic), a spring. obar, Tipperkevin, Aghagower, Tipperlinn,
Ted, a fox; e.g. Todburn, Todfield.
Toft (Scandinavian), homestead, field. Another form: tot.
Toin (Gaelic), rump, hill, lowland. Tonduff, Toneel.
Tom (Gaelic), Tomen (Welsh), knoll, or mound Tomintoul.
Ton (A.S.), a place surrounded by a hedge or palisade, a town village.
Tonn (Gaelic), wave, billow. Townlough.
Loughannadown. Tor (Celtic), a tower, pinnacle of rock. Toralt, Tory
Island, Torquay Dunster, Torphichen.
Torc (Celtic), a wild boar. Torc Mountain, Kanturk, Drumhirk, Edendurk.
Towyn (Welsh), a strand. Another form : tywyn.
Traigh, Tracht (Celtic), a strand. Tralee, Trawnamaddree, Ballintray,
Fintra, Ventry, Traeth-mawr.
Tre (Cymric), a village, a house; e.g. Trefriw, Treton.
Tri (Cymric), three; e.g. Tryfan (three-headed), Truro.
Tromm (Gaelic), elder-tree. Trim, Trummery, Tromman.
Tuaim (Gaelic), a tumulus. Tuam, Toome, Tomgrany. See also Tom.
Tuaith (Gaelic), left hand, north. Rattoo, Kiltoy, Tievetooey.
Tulach (Gaelic), a hillock. Tullaroan, Tullyallen, Tulloch.
Twistle, a boundary.
Ty (Cymric), a house. In Gaelic Teach, q.v. In Cornwall chy and ky;
e.g. Chynoweth, Kynance.
Uachdar (Celtic), upper. Kiloughter, Clowater, Watree, Moy Otra Auchterarder,
Uamh (Gaelic), a cave.
Uan, Loan (Celtic), a lamb. Strananoon, Gortnaloon.
Uchel ( Welsh), high; uch, higher; uchaf, highest. Ochil, Ogilvie. Welsh
form of uachdar.
Uisge Celtic), water. Eask, Lissaniska, Phoenix Park.
Ulv (Danish), a wolf. Ulva.
Ve (Norse), a sacred place; eg. Wydale, Weighton.
Ville, Well (French), an abode.
Voe (Norse), a little bay, inlet. See GOE.
Vrack (Gaelic). Another form of Breac, q.v.
Ware (Teutonic), inhabitants, people of. Worcester, Hwicwara-ceaster;
Wark (Norse), a fortress.
Wath (A.S.), a ford. Anotherform: wash.
Weald (A.S.), woodland. Another form: wold, wald; e.g. Waltham.
Well (Norse), an abode. Identical with Ger. weiler and Nor. Fr. ville.
Another form : will; e.g. Kettlewell. In some names well means a spring
Wen. See GWYN.
Wheal (Cymric), Huel, a tin mine; e.g. Brown Willy (Brynhuel).
Wick (A.S.), a village, and also a marsh; (Norse), a bay. Salt was obtained
by evaporation in bays, and hence the name wick or which was given to inland
places where there was salt; e.g. Droitwich, Wickham, Wicklow.
Woden (A.S.), the name of a god. Wednesbury, Wanborough, Wanstead.
Worth (A.S.), a warded or protected place.
Wrath (Norse), from hvarf, a turning-point. Cape Wrath.
Wy (Welsh), water. It also takes the form way.
Y (Welsh), the.
Yar (Gaelic), from garbh, rugged. Yarrow.
Yard (A.S.), a place guarded or girded round.
Ynys (Welsh), an island; e.g. Mismore.
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