|Naval history of Great Britain
||Description of the Dardanells
bearing his flag, Captain Thomas George Shortland, 74-gun ship Thunderer, Captain John Talbot, 64-gun ship Standard, Captain Thomas Harvey, one frigate and one sloop, anchored in Valetta harbour, island of Malta ; and, having taken in water and provisions, the squadron sailed again on the 15th. On the 21st the rear-admiral anchored off the island of Tenedos, situated about 14 miles to the southward of the entrance to the Dardanells, for the purpose of obtaining pilots, and a change of wind to the southward. While these two indispensable articles are being waited for, we will endeavour to give a brief description of the passage which the squadron was preparing to enter. The channel is full 12 leagues long, and, between the capes Greco and Janizary at its entrance, about three miles wide. About a mile up the strait are a pair of forts, called the outer castles of Europe and Asia. Here the channel is about two miles wide. About three leagues higher is a promontory, that contracts the passage to little more than three quarters of a mile. On each side of this narrow, the proper Dardanells, stands a castle, mounted with heavy cannon. These are called the inner castles of Europe and Asia, or the castles of Sestos and Abydos. Above these castles the passage widens, and then forms another constriction, which is hardly so wide as the former, and is also defended by forts. The passage again widens, and, after slightly approximating at Galipoli, opens into the sea of Marmora. At nearly the opposite extremity of this small sea, and at about 100 miles from the entrance to it, stands the city of Constantinople.
On the 27th, at 3 A.M., pilots being on board and the wind fair, the squadron weighed and stood towards the strait. At 9 A.M. the Thunderer and Standard anchored in Azire bay, about two miles below the castle of Abydos and the Canopus, with a light west-south-west wind, proceeded alone. At 10 A.M. the rear-admiral interchanged salutes with the fort of Mydore, and, at 4 P.M. on the 28th, with Seraglio point ; off which, at 5 P.M. the Canopus anchored, in company with the 40-gun frigate Endymion, Captain the Honourable Thomas Bladen Capel, who had carried out Mr. Arbuthnot, and was waiting the result of his negotiation.
It would appear that, intimidated by the preparations of the Russian ambassador, Italinski, to leave the capital, the Turks had, since the 15th of October, reversed the decrees which Sebastiani had extorted from their fears, and acceded to all Italinski's demands, when, on the 23d of November, the Russian General Michelson, at the head of a powerful army, entered Moldavia, and took possession of Chotzim, Bender, and Jassi. The news of this invasion turned the tide of affairs ; and Italinski, on the 25th of December, went on board Sir Thomas Louis's ship.
On the 28th, early in the morning, the rear-admiral weighed
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