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1815 Treaty of Peace 355

The news of the landing of Napoléon in France soon became known at the two principal islands of the French in the West Indies. At Martinique, the governor, the Comte de Vaugiraud, was favourable to Louis XVIII. ; but the governor of Guadaloupe, Vice-admiral the Comte Linois, so often named in these pages, was a stanch Buonapartist. The British naval and military commanders-in-chief at the Leeward islands were Rear-admiral Sir Philip Charles Durham, K. C. B., and Lieutenant-general Sir James Leith. Sometime in the month of June, at the request of the Comte de Vaugiraud, a body of British troops landed at Martinique, to aid him in preserving the island for King Louis ; and in the month of August Sir Philip Durham and Sir James Leith, assisted by the French Royalist comte, landed a body of troops on the island of Guadaloupe. On the 10th of August, after a skirmish, in which the British army lost 16 killed and about 50 wounded, the Comte Linois surrendered the island by capitulation, and was afterwards, with his adjutant-general conveyed to France by virtue of one of the articles of the treaty.

The treaty of peace between France and the allies, which was signed at Paris on the 30th of May, 1814, and interrupted for a short time as has already been briefly noticed, was again signed at Paris on the 20th of November, 1815. Of this treaty, it will be only necessary for us to state that, by the 8th article, France received back from Great Britain (not the first time that the latter has ceded by the pen what she had won by the sword) all her colonies, fisheries, factories, and establishments of every kind, as they were possessed by her on the 1st of January, 1792, in the seas, or on the continents, of America, Africa, and Asia; except Tobago and Sainte-Lucie, and the Isle of France, Isle Rodrigue, and the Sechelles.

Light Squadrons and Single Ships.

In our account of the unfortunate " demonstration" before the city of Baltimore, we mentioned, as one cause of the abandonment of the enterprise, and of the tepidness with which it had been conducted, an " ulterior object " in the view of the naval commander-in-chief. The ulterior object was the city of New-Orleans, the capital of the state of Louisiana. It stands upon the left bank of the river Mississippi, 105 miles, following the stream, and 90 miles, in a direct line, from its mouth. The population of the city, in 1814, was estimated at 23,242 persons. The line of maritime invasion extends from Lake Pontchartrain, on the east, to the river Têche on the west, intersected by several bays, inlets, and rivers, which furnish avenues of approach to the metropolis. But the flatness of the coast is every where unfavourable for the debarkation of troops ; and the bays and inlets being all obstructed by shoals or bars, no landing can be

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