Signal Stations during the Napoleonic Period and Afterwards - Some Miscellaneous Notes
Signal Stations :
Some miscellaneous notes on the early 19th Century Signal Stations which were established in 1795 and paid off at the Peace of Amiens circa March 1802 and were reactivated about 14 or so months later in May 1803:
Signal Stations on the South Coast from North Foreland to Land's End.
East Hill, south west of Deal, (Lately, circa Nov 1801, Lieutenant John Turner, of the Navy, and the Commander at the signal-post at East hill.)
Little Cornhill, westward of South Foreland,
Folkestone Cliff, Lt. J.A. Blow apptd circa March 1812,
Lympne, near Hythe,
Hawk Hill, east of Brighton,
Worthing (Parish of Broadwater),
Kingston, near Hampton River,
Beaconsfield, between Bognor and Middleton,
Christ Church Head,
Ballard Hill, Isle of Purbeck,
Round Down, Isle of Purbeck,
St. Albin’s Head, [should probably be Alban’s],
Hamborough Hill, west of Lulworth,
The Verne, Portland,
Punck-knoll, west of Abbotsbury, [see Puncknowle on a modern map],
Golden Cup, near Bridport, [should be Golden Cap, along the beach to the east of Charmouth],
Whitelands, west of Lyme,
Beer Head, near Colyton,
Peek Hill, near Sidmouth,
Coleton, Near Dartmouth,
Collegrew, or Start Point,
Hunter’s Top, near the Praule,
Westfore, near the Bolt Head,
Gurnose (Bigbury Bay),
Flag-Staff, near Maker Church, Plymouth, Lieut.
Penhale, East Looe, Lieut. Perkins Prynn, apptd. 21 Jun 1811,
- 28 Jan 1801 a signal was made at the telegraph, Maker, repeated from the western telegraphs, of an enemy's squadron being at sea, which occasioned some bustle and hurry at this port, [Plymouth], till explained by a subsequent signal as follows : that the first signal given by the look-out frigates off the Deadman, which repeats from the frigates from Brest to the Deadman, was wrong, and should have been for enemy's cruisers at sea, and not for a squadron of men-of-war being out.
John Hiatt, apptd. to Maker 26 Jul 1811 per NL Dec 1814.
Nealand, Polpero, Lieut. Wm. Tucker, 28 Dec 1807,
Deadman's Point, Mevagissey, Lieut. Ar. Stapledon, 7 Mar 1810,
Greber Head, Tregohy, Lieut. Charles Adams, 6 Dec 1813?,
St. Anthony’s Head, St. Mawes, Lieut. Thomas Wilks, 31 May 1808,
Manacle Point, Helston, Lieut. Jos. Withers, 31 May 1808,
Black Head, Helston, Lieut. Samuel Cock, 31 May 1808,
Lizard Point, Park-braws, Helston, Lieut. Hugh Tredwin, 10 Oct 1811,
Park-lough, Helston, east side of Mount’s Bay, Lieut. Degory King, 31 May 1808,
Tregoning Hill, Helston, Lieut. George George, 26 Jul 1811,
Tetterdien, Penzance, west side of Mount’s Bay, Lieut. George Grant, 31 May 1808,
St. Levans Point, Penzance, Lieut. Richard Jones, 7 Mar 1807,
Land’s End, or Purdennick, Penzance, Lieut. Thomas Ratsey, 10 Jul 1809,
Inspector of Telegraphs, G. Rochuck, Admiralty Officer.
Inspector of Telegraphs, in the Islands of Guernsey and Jersey &c., _____ Mulgrave.
9 Jan 1802 The night signals along the coasts of Devon and Cornwall are to be discontinued for the present.
Signal Stations on the North Coast, from the Nore to North Yarmouth.
On Foulness Isle,
Bradwell, St. Peter’s Chapel,
Colewick Farm, near St. Osyth Bay,
Eastwick Farm, on land called Hatchfield,
Little Holland Wall,
Burn House Land,
On the Nase Point,
Westward of Bawdsey Sea Marsh, on land called Further Warren,
Red House Warren,
Beacon Hill, on Dunwich Common, along with the town of Dunwich lost to the sea *
Easton Cliff near the Ness,
Guinton, to the Northward of Lowestoffe,
From St. Abbe’s Head to Leith.
St. Abbe’s Head,
Dowlow to the Southward of a point called Fall’s Castle,
Black Castle Hill, to the Southward of Shatteraw Point,
Within the Fort upon Dunbar Pier,
North Berwick Law,
Girlton Hill, to the S.W. of North Berwick,
Portseaton, in the Frith of Forth,
Carlton Hill, near Edinburgh.
(These last 8 signal stations were built in the summer of 1798 at Chatham Dockyard under the supervision of Captain Clements.)
County of Cork.
Ballynacotta, Cloyne, Lieut. Rob. Strickland, 4 Dec 1813, [from here to Hogg Island per NL Dec 1814.
Carlisle Fort, Cove, Lieut. Henry Ambrose, 30 Dec 1804,
Roberts Head, Kinsale, Lieut. John Alexander 15 May, ????,
Barry Point, Kinsale, Lieut. R.B. Matthews, 23 Mar 1812,
Old Head of Kinsale, Kinsale, Lieut. J.B. Bowdick, 18 Feb 1812,
Seven Heads, Clonakilty, Lieut. Chas. Mercier, 26 Aug. 1814,
Galley Head, Clonakilty, Lieut. Chas. King (2), 27 OCt. 1807,
Glandore, Roscarbery, Lieut. Thos. Crawford, 3 Mar 1812,
Toe Head, Skibbereen, Lieut. John Jeans, 26 Aug 1805,
Kedge Point, Lieut. David Atkinson, 3 Sep 1805,
Cape Clear, Lieut. William Wilmot, 4 Sep 18005,
Lemcon, Lieut. Robert Hoy, 29 Jun 1813,
Brow Head, Lieut. George Fisher, 16 Mar 1807,
Mizen Head, Lieut. ____ ____,
Sheep's Head, Bantry, Lieut. John Bassett, 2 Feb 1811,
___ Bay, Bantry, Lieut. Henry Ayres, 9 Nov 1805,
Bear Island, Castletown, Lieut. Jos. Packer, 9 Nov 1806,
Black Ball Head, Castletown, Lieut. Thomas Hawkes, 22 Nov 1814,
Dursey Island, Castletown, Lieut. Jas. Moriarty, 29 May ????,
Hogg Island, Lieut. G.J. Michell, not date give.
Following the introduction of the Sea Fencibles in 1798 the Signal Stations came under the jurisdiction of the Captain in charge of the Sea Fencibles in that district, and again in 1803 on the re-activation of the Fencibles, until the demise of the Sea Fencibles in early 1810.
9 Jan 1802 The night signals along the coasts of Devon and Cornwall are to be discontinued for the present, with the negotiations for the Peace of Amiens in progress, albeit slowly.
* 8 Jun 1805 It is interesting to note that over 5500 vessels passed the signal house at Dunwich Common, on the East Coast, between 5 Apr and 4 May, inclusive, excluding those that passed during the hours of darkness.
9 Dec 1811 a telegraph was erected at the Signal Station at Great Wakering, Essex.
Jan 1802 the watch for night signals was discontinued, i.e. during the Peace.
24 Jun 1803 the Admiralty issued a circular to the signal stations on the coast directing them to send in a report listing all transactions that have been carried out, and including details of the wind and weather etc.
19 Nov 1803 it is reported that the naval signal stations along the coast are directed to make certain signals in the night, by burning one or more blue lights, accompanied with a fire-blaze of no long duration. Care is to be taken by army personnel manning their beacons not to confuse signals from the naval signal stations with those from the army beacons.
7 Dec 1803 additional signal stations are reported to have been built in Kent and Essex, under the command of a Lieutenant, but I have no details.
In addition to the transmission of messages the presence of French privateers on the coast was noted and transmitted for the benefit of the merchant service and for directing RN cruisers to where the privateers were lurking e.g. on 14 May 1807 a signal was made at one p.m. from a signal post to the east, and repeated at Maker, of a privateer being off the Start. The following signals were particularly for the benefit of merchant vessels:
- For an enemy frigate or frigates = 1 ball above a flag
- For the enemy’s small cruisers = 2 balls above a flag
- For an enemy’s ship or vessel close under the land = 3 balls above a flag
Similarly the Customs and Admiralty Boards arranged that the coast signal stations would signal the presence of suspected smuggling vessels in the offing and perhaps transferring goods out at sea to smaller boats, or waiting for nightfall, and in the event of the revenue vessels making a capture the signal station would be entitled to a portion of any prize money arising from the information (per King's Cutters and Smugglers By E. Keble Chatterton).
22 Oct 1808 the Cygnet sighted by the Dowlaw signal station, near Dunbar, with her masts and bowsprit cut away and some of her guns thrown overboard : the signal station reported the fact to the local flag officer at Leith Roads who dispatched the sloops Spitfire and Basilisk, along with the local lifeboat, to provide assistance to the Cygnet, which was brought back to Leith Roads.
22 Oct 1809 the Manacle and Lizard signal stations reported the appearance of several French privateers on the coast, but there were no cruisers on that part of the coast to deal with the threat.
21 Jul 1810 the death was reported of Lieutenant W. Nowell, R.N., Commander of Peak Hill Signal Station, Devonshire,
29 Jun 1812 the current method of communication by flags and balls was reviewed in favour of something similar to the French method i.e. using a high pole with hinged signal arms (semaphore). The persons employed in sending and repeating signals are to be accommodated in a building on which the signal mast will be erected. This was put on hold until the peace.
Following the end of the war I gather that it was proposed to maintain the coast signal stations as a means of curtailing the activities of smugglers, and in some cases this was certainly the case, as it would appear that the coast guard took over some of the signal stations following the termination of the coast blockade in about 1830-31, but it would appear that most of the signal stations were disposed of over time.
The following signal stations were built for the Admiralty-Portsmouth Semaphore line which was opened in 1822, following the closure of the wartime 6-Shutter Telegraph at the end of the Napoleonic War in 1815 :
Admiralty to Portsmouth
Kingston, Coombe Warren,
Esher, Cooper's Hill,
Cobham, Chatley Heath,
Guildford, Pewley Hill,
Godalming, Bannicle Hill,
Haslemere, Haste Hill,
Midhurst, Holder Hill,
Petersfield, Beacon Hill, South Harting,
Petersfield, Compton Down, Compton,
Bedhamton, Portsdown Hill, Camp Down,
apart from the Portsmouth and Admiralty stations, the names of officers appointed to the various stations disappeared from the Navy List in 1848, with the arrival of the electronic telegraph in 1847, which followed the railway line to Gosport.
Details regarding how the wartime 6-Shutter Telegraph worked, as designed by Lord George Murray circa 1795, can be found in Volume 8 of the Mechanics Magazine, p. 296, available in Google Books.
Coastguard Signal Stations—Wireless Telegraphy.
23 March 1903 which six coastguard signal stations are already fitted with wireless telegraphy apparatus :—Dover, Culver Cliff, Portland, Rame Head, Scillys, and Roches Point.
The following are to be fitted during the financial year 1903/04 :—Bere Island, Spurn Head, Alderney, St. Abb's Head, St. Ann's. Head, Landguard, Port Patrick, Duncansby Head.
Commercial signalling is to be carried out from :— Culver Cliff, Scillys, Spurn Head, St. Abb's Head, Portland, St. Ann's Head, Duncansby Head, and Roches.
Blue Lights or False Fire :
Version 1: saltpetre, yellow arsenic, sulphur
Version 2: saltpetre, yellow orpiment, sulphur, antimony
Saltpetre, antimony, sulphur, mealed powder
Updated 29 May 2016
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